Clinical Echocardiography


To teach the advantages of the integration of echocardiographic data in clinical cardiology: better diagnosis, understanding of the pathophysiology, risk stratification, treatment and prognosis.


Learning outcomes:

In the end, students must be able to:

1. Know the different types of echocardiographic studies, understanding its advantages/limitations and its indications, being able to make a critical analysis of the appropriatness of the requests.

2. Interpret the reports and the morphological and functional data provided by echocardiography, in order to integrate them with the clinical data with the aim of improving outcomes.

3. Perform "clinical echocardiography": to use the results of echocardiography in the clinical arena ("this machine has no brain, please use yours")

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Prof. Doutor Nuno Cardim


Weekly - Available soon

Total - Available soon

Teaching language





-Recomendações e Guidelines da ESC (European Society of Cardiology) (

-Recomendações e consensos da EACVI (European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging) e ASE (American Society of Echocardiography (;

-Ecocardiografia transtorácica (coordenador: Nuno Cardim, Lidel 2010)

-Ecocardiografia- o estado da arte (coordenador: Nuno cardim, Lidel 2012)

-The EACVI textbook of echocardiography, 2nd edition Oxford 2016

-Ecocardiografia transtoracica-Nuno Cardim, Lidel 2010

-Ecocardiografia avançada-Nuno Cardim, Lidel 2012

-The Echo manual, J. Oh., 3rd edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

-Textbook of Clinical Echocardiography, Otto C, 4th ed.Saunders-Elsevier

Teaching method

• Timetable: 1 lesson per week, every thursday, 90 minutes duration, from 2h pm to 15h30 min pm

• Theoretical-practical lessons: theorehical exposition with echocardiographic images + interactive period of discussion of case reports and debate;

 • Visits to the echocardiography laboratory of Hospital da Luz and/or Corclinica - centro de diagnóstico cardiológico.


 Before each lesson students should:

1. Review the learning objectives of each lesson.

2. Prepare the topic before the lesson.

3. Apply in the discussion/debate the knowledge acquired.

Evaluation method

-Attendance: presence in =75% of the lessons: 20%

-Active participation in lessons and visit to echo labs: 20%

-Final theoretical examination: 60%

Subject matter

The patient with:

1-Myocardial diseases

Assessment of left and right ventricular function

Cardiomyopathies (dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive, arrhythmogenic, left ventricular non-compaction, stress cardiomyopathy, siderosis)


2-Coronary artery disease

Acute coronary syndromes: acute myocardial infarction and mechanical complications stable coronary artery disease

3-Valvular heart disease

Aortic stenosis and regurgitation

Mitral stenosis and regurgitation; mitral valve prolapse

Tricuspid and pulmonic valve disease

Valvular prothesis

percutaneous Intervention (percutaneous aortic valve, Mitraclip, left atrial appendage closure, ..)

Infective endocarditis

4- Diseases of the aorta

Aneurysms of the thoracic aorta

Acute aortic syndromes

5- Pericardial diseases

Pericardial effusion

Acute pericarditis

Constrictive pericarditis

Pericardial cysts

Congenital absence of pericardium

6-Masses and tumors

7-Grown-up congenital heart disease

8-Pulmonary embolism

9-Pulmonary hypertension

10-Echocardiography in clinical practice: the patient with suspected stable coronary artery disease/ chest pain/ unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy/ heart failure/ atrial fibrillation / ventricular arrhythmia/ syncope/ dyspnea/ stroke


Programs where the course is taught: