Introduction to Linguistic Analysis - 1st semester


By the end of the course, students should:
a) be able to distinguish descriptive and normative attitudes in linguistic analysis;
b) be able to identify different components of linguistic analysis, as well as the units in each component;
c) be able to identify different grammatical categories and distinguish category from function;
d) be familiar with and be able to apply different methodologies appropriate for the identification of language units at each level of analysis;
e) be able to create paradigms relevant to linguistic analysis;
f) have developed the ability to observe and compare different language systems;
g) be able to make explicit which language strings are possible and impossible in languages which they are familiar with;
h) be able to draw conclusions through the manipulation of linguistic data.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Ana Maria Lavadinho Madeira


Weekly - 4

Total - Available soon

Teaching language





Akmajian, A., R. Demers, A. Farmer & R. Harnish (1990) Linguistics: An Introduction to Language and Communication. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 6ª ed.
Cunha, C. & L. F. Lindley Cintra (1984) Nova Gramática do Português Contemporâneo, Lisboa: Ed. J. Sá da Costa.
Duarte, I. (2000) Língua Portuguesa. Instrumentos de Análise. Lisboa: Univ. Aberta.
Finegan, E. (2014) Language: Its Structure and Use. Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 7ª ed.
Fromkin, V., R. Rodman & N. Hyams (2014) An Introduction to Language. Boston: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 10ª ed.
Martins, A. M. & E. Carrilho (orgs.) (2016) Manual de Linguística Portuguesa. De Gruyter Mouton.
Mateus, M. H. M. et al (orgs.) (2003) Gramática da Língua Portuguesa. Lisboa: Caminho, 5ª ed.
O’Grady, W., J. Archibald & F. Katamba (2011) Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction (Learning About Language). Longman.
Raposo, E. et al (orgs.) (2013) Gramática do Português. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.

Teaching method

Classes with a theoretical and a practical component (practice exercises and problem solving)

Evaluation method

a) 4 in-class exercise sets (40%)
b) 1 written test (60%)

Subject matter

1. Concepts of ‘grammar’. Descriptive and prescriptive attitudes towards grammar. Modules of the grammar and linguistic units.
2. Methodological perspectives in linguistic analysis.
3. Sounds.
a) Writing and speech.
b) Language sounds and sound structure.
c) Minimal pairs for the identification of phonemes and their variants.
4. Words.
a) The internal structure of words: identification of morphemes. Processes of word formation.
b) Word classes: identification criteria.
c) Characterisation of some word classes and subclasses.
5. The sentence.
a) Sentence structure: identification of constituents and syntactic functions.
b) Word orders: crosslinguistic comparisons.
c) Complex sentences: coordination and subordination.
6. The corpus as a tool for linguistic analysis.


Programs where the course is taught: