Philosophy of History - 1st semester


a) To acquire skills and capacity in the study of the philosophy of history in modern and contemporary era.
b) To understand to how and when the philosophy of history acquired autonomy as specifically philosophical discipline.
c) To acquire a critical and interrelated perspective of the philosophers and their main ideas from the point of view of the philosophy of history
d) Understand the meaning of the evolution of the study of the philosophy of history in the modern to contemporary era.
e) Identify the key aspects of the philosophy of history and its contribution to the problems of society, politics, morality and the world in general.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

João Luís Lisboa


Weekly - 4

Total - Available soon

Teaching language



Not applicable


ROUSSEAU, J.-J., Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes, edição M. Raymond e B. Gagnebin, Œuvres complètes, Paris, Gallimard, 1964, pp. 109-223.
ROUSSEAU, J.-J., Du Contrat social ou principes du droit politique, Œuvres complètes, Paris, Gallimard, 1964, pp. 347-470.
KANT, I., A paz perpétua e outros opúsculos, tradução A. Morão, Lisboa, Edições 70, 2004.
KANT, I., Anthropologie du point de vue pragmatique, tradução M. Foucault, Paris, Vrin, 2011.
HABERMAS, J., Direito e Democracia, entre factos e normas, tradução F. Siebeneichler, Rio de Janeiro, Tempo Brasileiro, 2003, 2 vols.

Teaching method

Teaching methods include theoretical and practical classes with the same academic weight. The theoretical lectures will enable the basic knowledge of the philosophers, identifying the main issues of the philosophy of history, emphasizing the decisive points of their main ideas and also will allow a critical and inter-related point of view of the authors.
The practical classes are aimed at the review of the most important philosophical texts of the program, describing the elements that represent the continuity and rupture in the formulation of philosophical questions and the solution of the main problems raised by the authors.

Evaluation method

The evaluation methods include lectures and practical classes with the same academic weight. Discussion of philosophical texts on the great themes of Philosophy of History.
The evaluation consists of frequency (40%); work with oral defense (40%); continuous evaluation and participation in class (20%).

Subject matter

I. The Philosophy of History in Rousseau: from the Discourse on Inequality (1755) to the Social Contract (1762).
a) From the nature state to civil state: the steps of the philosophy of history of mankind.
b) The Social Contract and \"the principles of political right\" as the embodiment of man´s destiny.
II . From the natural right to positive right as the fate of political history in Habermas.
c) The natural right as a propaedeutics of the praxis paradigm.
d) Moral, Right and Democracy: the \"emancipation\" as the telos of history in Habermas.


Programs where the course is taught: