Geography: History and Methods


a)To identify the main events in the evolution of geographic thought;
b)To understand the national schools and currents of geographical thought in different historical contexts;
c)To understand the historic dynamics of Geography as a process of continuity, persistence and change.
d)To develop a critical thinking on the evolution of geographical thought;
e)To understand the evolution of the Portuguese Geography in the context of the progress of geographical thought;
f)To select appropriate sources and collect relevant information on the History of Geography;
g)To develop a critical attitude on the available sources of information;
h)To know the main instruments that are the basis of academic work, including the summary and bibliographic notes, references and citations;
i)To evaluate the relative importance of different career opportunities in Geography;
j)To apply knowledge on methodologies in the preparation of brief essay or summaries of geographical issues.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

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Weekly - 4

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Leitura obrigatória / Compulsory reading:
Claval, P. (2006). História da Geografia. Lisboa: Edições 70.
Holt-Jensen, A. (2009). Geography. History and concepts. A student’s Guide (4th ed.). London: Sage, 264p.
Ribeiro, O. (2012). O Ensino da Geografia. Porto: Porto Editora.

Leitura complementar / Further reading
CAPEL, H. (2012).Filosofía y ciencia en la Geografía contemporánea. Una introducción a la Geografia. (Nova edição ampliada). Barcelona: Ediciones del Serbal, 2012. 477 p.
Claval, P. (1982) A Nova Geografia. Coimbra: Almedina.
Clifford, N., Holloway, S., Rice, S., Valentine, G. (ed.) (2009). Key Concepts in Geography (2nd ed.). London: Sage. Cap. 1, pp.1-82.
Clifford, N., Shaun, F., Valentine, G. (ed.) (2010). Key Methods in Geography (2nd ed.). London: Sage.
Cresswell, T. (2012). Geographic Thought: A Critical Introduction. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Merénne-Schoumaker, B. (2002). Analyser les territoires. Savoirs et outils (2ª ed.). Rennes: PUR, pp.61-120.

Teaching method

Theoretical and practical classes: extensive explanation of program topics; analysis and discussion of textbooks´ chapters and papers; practical exercises in the classes, under supervision.

Evaluation method

Written tests: [60%].
Exercises in classes: [15%].
Practical work about a Portuguese geographer: [20%].
Attendance and participation: [5%].

[According to the assessment of FCSH rules, the proposed evaluation elements introduced to students in the first class may suffer readjustments, namely in the weight of each element].

Subject matter

1) The pre-scientific geographical thought: Classical Antiquity, Middle Ages and Renaissance.
2) The dissemination of teaching of Ancient Geography and Institutionalization of Geography as a Modern Science and University Discipline.
3) Classical Geography in the different schools of Geography: theory and methods.
4) New Geography: theory and methods.
5) The other Geographies: humanist, radical, behaviorist and cultural.
6) Post-modern and current Geographies.
[At each previous point, theoretical and methodological aspects of Geography are presented. It also makes reference to the Portuguese Geography, and the most important geographers in each period.]
7) The analysis of territories: basic concepts.
8) The analysis of territories: spatial methods and models.
9) What is the use of Geography today?


Programs where the course is taught: