Epistemology - 2nd semester


1. Gain a general view of the problems debated in contemporary epistemology.
2. Relate the problems of knowledge to current epistemology.
3. Understand the fundamental questions of the relationship between philosophy and the various sciences.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Nuno Carlos Venturinha


Weekly - 4

Total - Available soon

Teaching language





BOLZANO, B. (1985-2000). Wissenschaftslehre, Gesamtausgabe, vols. 11,1-14,3. Estugarda: Frommann-Holzboog; (2014). Theory of Science, 4 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [§§1-45 e 269-321]
HUSSERL, E. (1975). Logische Untersuchungen. Erster Band: Prolegomena zur reinen Logik, Husserliana, vol. XVIII. Haia: Martinus Nijhoff; (2005) Investigações Lógicas. Primeiro Volume: Prolegómenos à Lógica Pura, Obras de Edmund Husserl. Lisboa: Centro de Filosofia da Universidade de Lisboa. [Cap. VII, §40]
KANT, I. (1974). Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Werkausgabe, vols. III-IV. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp; (1985). Crítica da Razão Pura. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. [Parte II, cap. II, sec. 3]
KANT, I. (1977). Logik, ed. G. B. Jäsche, Werkausgabe, vol. VI. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp; (2009). Lógica. Lisboa: Edições Texto & Grafia. [Introdução, caps. IX e X]
WITTGENSTEIN, L. (1969, 1974). Über Gewissheit / On Certainty. Oxford: Blackwell; (1990). Da Certeza. Lisboa: Edições 70. [§§66-192]

Teaching method

The method adopted for the class combines exposition of the readings and commentaries on them along with discussion of student papers. In class teaching.

Evaluation method

Besides a final exam (60%), each student is required to write a review of a contemporary article or book chapter, to be chosen from a list of papers selected by the teacher, that will be presented and discussed in class (40%).

Subject matter

Modes of Holding True

What do we mean by the word \"knowledge\"? What do we know about knowledge? Are there various degrees of knowing something? In the Critique of Pure Reason, more specifically in the third section of Chapter II of the Transcendental Doctrine of Method, Kant makes use of the notion of \"holding true\" (Fürwahrhalten), which includes three epistemic modes: opinion, belief and knowledge. We shall analyze in detail Kant´s argumentation in this and in other texts, especially in chapters IX and X of the Introduction to the Jäsche Logic. We shall proceed by focusing on different employments of the concept of \"Fürwahrhalten\" after Kant, namely in Bolzano, Husserl and Wittgenstein. Each of them has a distinct epistemological view that needs to be considered if we want to respond to contemporary concerns about the possibility of knowledge and bridge the gap between apparently irreconcilable extremes in epistemology: objectivism and subjectivism.


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