Physics II


At the end of this subject the student should have obtained knowledge, ability and competences in

-the physical processes and the Laws of Thermodynamics, in particular a) heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation b) phase transitions c) thermodynamic cycles for the study of heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators and the calculation of the respective efficiency when opperating with ideal gases in reversible processes d) entropy and its production in concrete processes e) thermodynamic potentials f) experimental study of some of these processes

General characterization





Responsible teacher

António Alberto Dias, Maria Adelaide de Almeida Pedro de Jesus


Weekly - 4

Total - 69

Teaching language



Approval in the subjects

"Análise Matemática I"


"Física I" 

is recommended.


A: Fundamentals of Physics; Halliday/Resnick/Walker

B: Física (um curso universitário); Alonso e Finn ed. Brasileira, 1981, vol 1

C: Sebenta Fis II em Documentação de Apoio – Acetatos

D: Physics; Paul Tipler and Gene Mosca

E: Physics; Kane & Sternheim


Teaching method

The information on the  functioning of the subject will be available in CLIP, either in "Avisos"  or in the folders  "Documentação de apoio", during the teaching semester.

This course is divided in a theoretical component and a practical component. Both components require successful assessment results.

The theory, including some typical problems, is taught twice a week in 1,5 h lectures. 

The practical classes are divided in exercise and laboratorial classes. In exercise classes, problems from the series are made as well as, at two different dates, one problem for evaluation. In laboratorial classes, experiments are performed to clarify concepts and to develop laboratorial capacities. Students deliver 4 reports.

Evaluation method

Continuous assessment of knowledge (see details in portuguese)

Subject matter

1. Energy
1.1 Energy revisited
1.2 Internal Energy

2. Kinetic Theory of Gases
2.1 Pressure, Temperature
2.2 Equipartition of Energy, Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
2.3 Mean Free Path, Diffusion, Osmotic Pressure.

3. Thermodynamics Concepts and Wording
3.1 Systems
3.2 Properties
3.3 Processes

4. Pressure and Temperature
4.1 Pressure: barometric, gauge and absolute

4.2 Thermal Equilibrium. Zero Law of Thermodynamics
4.3 Thermometric Properties
4.4 Temperature Scales

5. State Equations
5.1 State Equation and P-V-T surface
5.2 State Equation of an ideal gas
5.3 State Equation of a real gas
5.4 Expansion and Compression

6. The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
6.1 Work
6.2 Heat
6.3 Energy Conservation – The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
6.4 Heat capacity and specific heat

6.4 Enthalpy
6.5 Internal Energy Equations
6.6 Adiabatic Processes 

7. Heat Transfer
7.1 Conduction
7.2 Convection
7.3 Radiation

8. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
8.1 Second Law – Kelvin and Clausius versions
8.2 Carnot theorem; Thermodynamic Temperature
8.3 Entropy
8.4 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; Clausius Inequality
8.5 Microscopic Vision of Entropy

9. The 1st + 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics
9.1 TdS equations – examples of application
9.2 TS diagrams

10. Phase Transitions
10.1 Different physical states of matter
10.2 PV Diagrams of phase transitions
10.3 TS Diagrams of phase transitions

11. Thermal Engines, Refrigerators and Heat Pumps.
11.1 Energy flux diagram of a thermal engine; Efficiency
11.2 External combustion motors – Stirling e and Steam Machine
11.3 External combustion motors – Otto 
11.4 Energy flux diagram of a refrigerator; Coefficient of performance
11.5 Energy flux diagram of a heat pump; Coefficient of performance

12. The 3rd Law of Thermodynamics and Thermodynamic Potentials
12.1 3rd Law of Thermodynamics
12.2 Consequences of the third law
12.3 Thermodynamic Potentials; System Evolution towards equilibrium

13. Open Systems
13.1 Modification of the Equations
13.2 Chemical Potential
13.3 Phase Transitions. 
13.4 Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
13.5 Thermodynamic vision of diffusion