Stratigraphy and Paleontology


Ordination in space and time of lithic bodies and events stored within; 
reference systems (stratigraphic scales). History of the Earth and Life.
Knowledge and understanding of fundamental concepts and principles of 
stratigraphy and paleontology.

Definition and characterization of stratigraphic units and their application.

Skills development in the field of stratigraphic records analysis and
identification of fossils. Preparation of stratigraphic columns and their

Analysis and interpretation of rock successions, characterization of their
relationship in space and time.

Analysis of facies successions and their interpretations in terms of
evolution of sedimentary environments.  

Understanding and handling of the Table of Stratigraphic Divisions.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Paulo Alexandre Rodrigues Roque Legoinha


Weekly - 4

Total - 64

Teaching language



Available soon


BROOKFIELD, M. (2004) - Principles of Stratigraphy. Blackwell, Malden, Oxford, Carlton, 340 p.

CONDIE, K.C. & SLOAN, R. (1998) - Origin and evolution of Earth. Principles of historical geology. Prentice-Hall, 498p.

DABRIO, C. & HERNANDO, S. (2003) – Estratigrafia. Facultad de Ciencias Geológicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Colección Geociencias, 382 p.

MONROE, J.S. & WICANDER, R. (2000) – Historical Geology. Evolution of Earth and life through time. Brooks / Cole, Thomson Learning, 580p.

NICHOLS, G – (1999) Sedimentology & Stratigraphy. Blackwell Publishing, 355 p.

VERA TORRES, J. A. (1994) - Estratigrafia, principios e métodos. Ed. Rueda, Madrid, 806 p.

Teaching method

Available soon

Evaluation method

Continuous assessment with 2 tests and 2 group works.
The final classification (FC): average of the marks obtained in
the tests (50%) and group work (25%+25%).
Approval with FC >= 9,5/20

Frequency is obtained by the presence in at least 2/3
of the classes 2/3 of the classes 
and delivery of the
2 group works.

Students with frequency can go to the appeal exam.

Subject matter

1 - Definition and objectives. History. Stratigraphical classification. The dimension "Time"; events succession. Time measurement. Rock Systems and Periods of time. Biostratigraphy. Stratigraphic laws. 

2 - Unconformities and types of contact between lithological units. Facies. Walther law. Sequential analysis. Paleogeography. Events stratigraphy.

3 - Lithostratigraphic,  biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic units. Stratotypes. Chronostratigraphic and geochronologic tables. 

4 - Paleontology and Stratigraphy. Fossilization; Taxonomy and nomenclature; Paleobiogeography, Paleoecology; important plants and animals in stratigraphy. 

5 - Physical and geochemical methods of Stratigraphy. 

6 - Sequence stratigraphy. Correlations. 

7 - Global synthesis. Geo-history. Pre-Cambrian. Characteristics. Subdivision and boundaries. Paleogeography. Paleozoic. Characteristics. Subdivision and boundaries. Caledonian and Hercynian orogenic cycles. Paleogeography. Paleoclimatology. Mesozoic. Characteristics. Subdivision and boundaries. Alpine orogeny. Paleogeography; Pangea fragmentation; transgressions and regressions related to the Boreal and to the Thetys seas. Paleoclimatology. Cenozoic. Characteristics. Subdivision and boundaries. Follow-up of the Alpine orogenic cycle. Paleogeography. Paleoclimatology.

8 - Exercises involving concepts of stratigraphy and lithostratigraphic column design, correlation, interpretation of the paleogeographic evolution. 

Field trip 
9 - Visit of exemplary outcrops for illustration of stratigraphic concepts, and description and drawing of stratigraphic columns.


Programs where the course is taught: