Metabolism and Regulation


In this course students will acquire basic knowledge inBiochemistry with particular emphasis onmetabolic processestheir regulation and integration.Themes that exemplify the importance of this knowledge in Medicineincluding case studies of metabolic diseases, are also addressed in the form of seminars or team work. With such approach, students will study and go deeper into specific topics of the course, using  not only text books but also related scientific publications. Thus they will develop  their communication skills, with oral presentations, contributing to the continuous assessment of knowledge.
As in other coureses, laboratory classes focus relevant aspects of the theory and compel the student to work in group.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Carlos Alberto Gomes Salgueiro, Maria Alice Santos Pereira


Weekly - 4

Total - 60

Teaching language



Higly recommended that the students have sucessufully concluded the UC Biochemistry.


Nelson, D.L., & Cox, M.M.
W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 5th ed. 2008

Voet, D., Voet, J.G. & Pratt, C.W.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 3rd ed. 2008

Lubert Stryer
W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. 6th Ed. 2007

Newsholme, E., Leech, T.
Wiley-Blackell, 1st ed. 2009 (ISBN 978-0-471-93165-2)

Keith N. Frayn
Porto Editora, 1ª edição, 2009

Teaching method

Teaching involves:

  1. Lectures taught using a "data-show", accompanied by supplementary bibliography previously available on the course page in CLIP. In the first class of the semester all information about the curricular unit will be presented. Evaluation will be discussed as well.
  1. Problem-solving sessions, putting in practice the theoretical concepts acquired throughout the different classes.
  2. Laboratory sessions with groups of four students ( 4 sessions), where students conduct experimental work following laboratory protocols previously distributed to all students. 

All the information about the course is accessible through the dedicated web page on CLIP platform. In this site all pdfs files of the lectures presentations, laboratory protocols and exercises will be available.

Evaluation method

I. General Conditions of participation, frequency and evaluation of UC

 1. The UC of Metabolismo e Regulaçã includes:

- theoretical lessons 

- theoretical and practical classes )

- laboratory classes 

2. The participation in all laboratory classes is mandatory.

3. The evaluation process includes evaluation of the theoretical and practical parts of the curricular unit, as well as a seminar presentation .

4. Students without frequency on the practical part of the UC are excluded from the assessment of the theoretical component of the UC.

5. Extraordinary repetition sessions of laboratory work are not allowed .

6. A student with frequency on the practical part but without approval in the theoretical part of the UC will retain the frequency of the practical part of the UC during for the two subsequent academic years.

II. Obtaining frequency

 7. The frequency of the practical part of the UC consists in the laboratory work and in its previous preparation and also in the elaboration of the respective questionnaires by each group of up to 3 students.

 8. The ongoing assessment of the practical part of the UC includes:

-Capacity for the implementation of practical work in the laboratory and its appreciation by the lecturer in charge during the laboratory session.

-Assiduity and respect of the deadlines in the delivery of assignments.

-Delivery of the analysis of results and respective questionnaires.

III. Evaluation of the theoretical and practical parts of the UC

9. Ongoing evaluation of the UC consists in the execution of three tests.

10. The theorectical tests (three) contributes with 70% to the total grade. The remaining 30% correspond to practical test that focus on the practical work carried out in the laboratory in the current academic year (20%) and presentation of a seminar (10%). For approval, the classification in the teorecthical component must be equal to or greater than 9.5. Previous practical grades are valid for the current year.

 11. The exam does not include practical questions and keeps the percentages of 70%. The remaining 30%  correspond to the gradeobtained in the practical (20%) test and seminar (10%). For approval, the classification in this exam must be equal to or greater than 9.5.

12. The students with approval on the ongoing evaluation (tests) may improve the grade in the exam. To do so, they should follow the current regulations. Also in this case, The exam does not include practical questions and keeps the percentages of 70%. The remaining 30% 30%  correspond to the grade obtained in the practical (20%) test and seminar (10%). 

13. For student with frequency from previous years, No caso dos alunos com frequência obtida em anos anteriores (without a Seminar grade) the final grade will be determiend considerring 25% of the practical grade and 75% of the theorectical one. If they have a seminar grade the final grade will be calculated as described in point 10 or 11.

 IV. Approval and final grade

 14. Only students with frequency at the UC will be assigned a final grade.

15. Students will obtain approval at the UC provided they have a final rating equal to or greater than 9.5.

Subject matter

  1. Introduction. Basic concepts of Metabolism. Principles of metabolic regulation
  2. Mechanisms of signal transduction and chemical communication between cells.
  3. Revision of the Central Metabolism – Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis and their Reciprocal Regulation. The Cori cycle. The citric acid cycle. The glyoxylate cycle. Oxidative phosphorylation.
  4. The Calvin Cycle and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway. Activity of the Calvin Cycle and its dependence on environmental conditions. The CAM metabolism. The Pentose Phosphate Pathway and its coordination with Glycolysis.
  5. Glycogen Metabolism. Glycogen breakdown and synthesis and their reciprocal regulation. The regulation of phosphorylase and its regulation by allosteric interactions and reversible phosphorylation.
  6. Lipid Metabolism. Oxidation and biosynthesis of fatty acids. Ketone bodies. Regulation. The Control of Fatty Acid Metabolism and key regulation by acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase.
  7. Metabolism of amino acids. Amino acids oxidation and production of urea. Biosynthesis of amino acids and molecules derived from amino acids.
  8. Nucleotide Metabolism. De novo biosynthesis and degradation of nucleotides.
  9. Integration and metabolic regulation. Summary of the main metabolic pathways and the main strategies for energy conservation. Integration of the metabolic pathways and organ specialization. Hormonal regulation and integration of mammalian metabolism


Programs where the course is taught: