Ceramic and Glass Technologies


Knowledge about  the technological processes for the production of ceramic and glass materials. Identification and characterization of the raw materials, with particular emphasis on the industrial production of traditional ceramics. Identification, description and classification of the methods used in the processing of ceramic and glassy materials. Analysis of the main environmental aspects related with the processing of ceramics and glasses.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Maria Margarida Rolim Augusto Lima


Weekly - 5

Total - 87

Teaching language




To have at least frequency, or to have passed, in the discipline of Ceramic and Glass Materials.  


-"Ceramic Processing",R. A. Terpstra, P. P. A. C. Pex, A. H. de Vries, Ceramic Processing, 1995

- "Processing I, Glass Science and and Technology, D. R. Uhlmann andN. Kriedl, Processing I, Glass

Science and Technology, 1984

-“Modern Ceramics Engineering, Properties, Processing and Use in Design”, D. W. Richerson,2nd. Ed.,

Marcell Dekker Inc. , 1992

-"The Technology of Glass and Ceramics" an Introduction , J. Hlavac, Elsevier Science Publishers, 1983

-"Ceramic Processing and Sintering", M. N. Rahaman, Marcell Dekker Inc. , 1995

-“Introdução à Ciência e Tecnologia do Vidro", M. Helena F. V. Fernandes, Universidade Aberta, 1999

- “Tecnologia do Processamento Cerâmico”, A. Tomás da Fonseca, Universidade Aberta, 2000

-“Argilas- O que são e para que servem”, Celso F. Gomes, Fundação Caloustre Gulbenkian,

-“Minerais Industriais”, Celso S. F. Gomes, Instituto de Investigação Científica, 1990

-”Lea`s Chemestry of cement and concrete”, Peter C. Hewlett, Butterworth Heinemann, 2001.

Teaching method

Lectures: oral communication helped with presentations (ppt), examples from some internet sites and utilization of the blackboard.

Theoretical-pratical classes: problem solving sessions related with subjects treated in theoretical classes.

Pratical classes: laboratorial classes, using the facilities from the Ceramics and Glasses Lab. at DCM.

Evaluation method

Frequency- Gained by performing the lab essays.

Evaluation Methods -By performing 3 mid-term tests (T1, T2 and T3) or by final exam. In case that mid-term tests are performed, in order to get exemption from final exam, the students need to have in first  test  (T1) at least a grade of 7.5 out of 20, and T, the grade resulting from both tests, T=(T1+T2+T3)/3, has to be at least 9.5.In case that only final exam is performed, the exam grade (E) has to be at least 9.5. For the students that perform mid-term tests, Final Grade = 0.5T+0.5A, A corresponds to the grade obtained from the evaluation of the lab essays.  For the students that perform final exam, Final Grade = 0.5E+0.5A.

Subject matter

Theorectical classes:

Powder processing (grinding and milling, methods for powder characterization). Glass technology (raw materials; typical compositions for commercial glasses; glass melting; glass fining; glass forming methods; thermal treatments (annealing and tempering). Glazes (composition; ceramic substrate-glaze compatibility; defects in glazes; colouring ceramic pigments, methods for glaze application). Shape-forming processes (pressing; slip casting; plastic methods). Drying (effect of temperature and humidity on drying rate). Ceramics densification. Kilns and furnaces (kilns for ceramic industry and kilns for glass industry).


Laboratorial Practical Classes:

P1- Fragmentation with jack hammer

 P2-Fragmentation with a hammer mill

 P3- Bulk Sampling

 P4- Dstribution of particle size

 P5- Sampling divider by rotary machine

 P6- Particle size reduction by milling

 P7- Preparation, sintering and assembly

 P8-  Measurement of density of a powder by picnometry

 P9- Determination of open porosity of a ceramic

 P10- Analysis a powder by the sedimentation method

 P11- Polishing and microscopic observation


Programs where the course is taught: