Flat Panel Displays Materials and Technology


At the end of this course the students should have solid knowledge on the materials, structure, fabrication and operation of different flat panel displays, with special relevance on LCDs and OLEDs for the high-end market and electrophoretics and electrochromics for the low-end, which are the dominant technologies of the actual and upcoming market, as well as the different adressing schemes and technologies for these displays.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Rita Maria Mourão Salazar Branquinho, Rodrigo Ferrão de Paiva Martins


Weekly - 5

Total - Available soon

Teaching language



Available soon


J.-H. Lee, D. N. Liu, and S.-T. Wu, Introduction to Flat Panel Displays, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2008

G.P. Crawford, Flexible Flat Panel Displays, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2005

A.K. Bhowmik, Z. Li, and P.J. Bos, Mobile Displays: Technology and Applications, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2008

R.R. Hainich and O. Bimber, Displays: Fundamentals & Applications, Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press, 2011

Teaching method

Available soon

Evaluation method

Available soon

Subject matter


  • Introduction to displays: basic concepts, historical background, importance, applications and market, classification and main characterization parameters
  • Fundaments of light, optics and visual perception
  • Substrates for displays: properties, advantages and limitations of rigid and flexible substrates. The problematic of indium in displays
  • Liquid crystal displays: introduction to liquid crystals (definitions, types, phases, properties), polarization and birefringence, the TN cell, addressing schemes (direct, passive and active matrices)
  • Active Matrix LCDs: requirements, comparison of the different TFT technologies, other devices for on/off switching in AMLCDs. Optimization of AMLCDs: brightness, contrast, viewing angle, response time; flicker, image artifacts, power consumption
  • Electroluminescent displays: OLEDs, TFELs and (micro)LEDs. QDs
  • Main technologies of touch-screens
  • 3D displays
  • Active matrices for X-ray imaging panels
  • Alternative technologies in FPDs (e-paper, electrochromic, plasma...)



Lab analysis of commercial OLED and LCD displays

Fabrication and characterization of LCD with segmented addressing and passive matrix

Questions regarding addressing schemes in displays

Electrical characterization of an OLED pixel circuit


Programs where the course is taught: