Thermodynamics B


Knowledge: Concept learning related to kinetic theory, fluid dynamics and thermodynamics; Correct Physics terminology; Introduction to metrology (measurement, data analysis; uncertainties); Familiarization with instrumentation.

Transversal Competencies: Development of scientific reasoning; Analysis and resolution of problems; Connection to concepts and instruments of other curricular units such as Mathematics and Computer Science.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Maria Adelaide de Almeida Pedro de Jesus


Weekly - 6

Total - 63

Teaching language



Approval in the subjects:

 "Análise Matemática I"  e   "Introdução à Biofísica".


A: Fundamentals of Physics; Halliday/Resnick/Walker
B: Physics; Kane & Sternheim
C: Física (um curso universitário); Alonso e Finn ed. Brasileira, 1981, vol 1
D: Sebenta Fis II em Documentação de Apoio – Acetatos
E: Physics; Paul Tipler and Gene Mosca

Teaching method

Information on the  functioning of the subject will be available in CLIP, either in "Avisos"  or in the folders  "Documentação de apoio", during the teaching semester.

This course is divided in a theoretical component and a practical component. Both components require successful assessment results.

The theory, including some typical problems, is taught twice a week in 1,5 h lectures. 

The practical classes are divided in exercise and laboratorial classes. In exercise classes, problems from the series are made as well as, at two different dates, one problem for evaluation. In laboratorial classes, experiments are performed to clarify concepts and to develop laboratorial capacities. Students deliver 4 reports.


Evaluation method

Available soon

Subject matter

1. Energy
1.1 Energy revisited
1.2 Internal Energy

2. Kinetic Theory of Gases
2.1 Pressure, Temperature
2.2 Equipartition of Energy, Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
2.3 Mean Free Path, Diffusion, Osmotic Pressure.

3. Thermodynamics Concepts and Wording
3.1 Systems
3.2 Properties
3.3 Processes

4. Temperature
4.1 Thermal Equilibrium. Zero Law of Thermodynamics
4.2 Thermometric Properties
4.3 Temperature Scales

5. State Equations
5.1 State Equation and P-V-T surface
5.2 State Equation of an ideal gas
5.3 State Equation of a real gas
5.4 Phase transitions

6. Thermal Properties of Matter 
6.1 Expansion and Compression
6.2 Specific heat

7. The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
7.1 Work
7.2 Heat
7.3 Energy Conservation – The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
7.4 Enthalpy
7.5 Internal Energy Equations
7.6 Adiabatic Processes

8. Heat Transfer
8.1 Conduction
8.2 Convection
8.3 Radiation

9. Thermal Engines, Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
9.1 Energy flux diagram of a thermal engine; Efficiency
9.2 External combustion motors – Stirling e and Steam Machine
9.3 External combustion motors – Otto 
9.4 Energy flux diagram of a refrigerator; Coefficient of performance
9.5 Energy flux diagram of a heat pump; Coefficient of performance

10. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
10.1 Second Law – Kelvin and Clausius versions
10.2 Carnot theorem; Thermodynamic Temperature
10.3 Entropy
10.4 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; Clausius Inequality
10.5 Microscopic Vision of Entropy
10.6 T-S Diagrams

11. BIO Implications of the Thermodynamic Laws
11.1 The human being as a thermal engine
11.2 Processes of energy production, storage and transfer
11.3 Control and regulation of temperature in hot-blood animals

12. Fundamental Equations and Thermodynamic Potentials
12.1 TdS Equations; Examples of Application
12.2 Thermodynamic Potentials; System Evolution towards equilibrium

13. The 3rd Law of Thermodynamics
13.1 3rd Law of Thermodynamics
13.2 Consequences of the third law

14. Open Systems
14.1 Modification of the Equations
14.2 Chemical Potential
14.3 Phase Transitions
14.4 Thermodynamic vision of diffusion and osmotic pressure

15. BIO Applications of Enthalpy and Gibbs Energy


Programs where the course is taught: