General Inorganic Chemistry
To introduce and rationalize the diversity of inorganic compounds exhibited by the various elements of the Periodic Table. This subject develops along two parts: main group elements (s and p blocks) and transition elements (d block).
António Jorge Dias Parola
Weekly - 4
Total - 64
1 - W. Henderson, Main Group Chemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000.
2 - D. F. Shriver, P. W. Atkins et al., Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, 2010.
3 - F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, P. L. Gaus, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., Wiley, 1995.
4 - A. I. Vogel, Química Analítica Qualitativa, 5ª ed., São Paulo, Mestre Jou, 1981 (lab lessons).
5 - A. Ringbom, Les complexes en chimie analytique, Dunod, Paris, 1967.
The teaching of Inorganic Chemistry (CR) is spread over 26 h of theoretical lessons, complemented by 9 h of exercises and problems solving. The experimental part comprises 24 h of laboratory practice.
1. The final grade (NF) is given by:
NF = 0.25 x P + 0.75 x T
where P is the laboratory grade and T the theoretical grade, both round to the one decimal place.
2. The theoretical grade is obtained through three minitests or through a final exam.
3. The laboratory part is graded by the skills acquired and demonstrated during the lessons and by results obtained on the questionnaires associated to each expriment.
1. Theoretical lessons
1.1. Introduction. Review of atomic structure: quantum numbers, orbitals, electronic configuration. Effective nuclear charge. Periodic table trends.
1.2. Main group chemistry.
1.2.1. Group 1: hydrogen and alcaline metals. Solubility of salts in water: lattice energy, hydration enthalpy, solution enthalpy.
1.2.2. Group 2: alkaline earth metals.
1.2.3. Group 13.
1.2.4. Group 14.
1.2.5. Group 15. Redox representations: Latimer, Frost and Pourbaix diagrams.
1.2.6. Group 16.
1.2.7. Group 17: halogens.
1.3. Transition metal chemistry.
1.3.1. The transition elements: their discivery and position in the periodic table. The d block and the f block.
1.3.2. Coordination compounds: origins; ligands; nomenclature.
1.3.3. Isomerism in coordination compounds.
1.3.4. Bond theories in coordination compounds.
188.8.131.52. Crystal Field Theory. Magnetism and colour of coordination compoundsOctahedral, tetrahedral and square planar complexes. Spectrochemical series.
184.108.40.206. Molecular Orbital Theory: review of concepts. Ligand Field Theory: pi bonding: pi acceptor and donor groups; pi backbonding.
1.3.5. Chemical equilibrium in coordination compounds: partial and global constants. Complexometry. Dependence of equilibrium on pH: conditional constants. Calculations: mass balance.
1.3.6. Stability of coordination compounds: chelation effect; Irving-Williams series; Hard Soft Acid Base (HSAB) principle.
2. Practical lessons
2.1. Exercises and problems related to the theoretical lessons.
3. Laboratory lessons
3.1. Calculations and preparation of solutions.
3.2. Coordination chemistry I - Synthesis of colbalt pigments.
3.3. Main Group chemistry I - Groups 1 and 2.
3.4. Main Group chemistry II - Groups 14 e 15.
3.5. Main Group chemistry III - Groups 16 e 17.
3.6. Coordination chemistry II - Nernst equation for the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox pair
3.7. Coordination chemistry III - (a) Cu(II) complexes with different ligand fields; (b) Determination of the stability constant for [FeSCN]2+; (c) Determination of the stoichiometry of the complex formed between Ni(II) and EDTA.
3.8. Coordination chemistry IV - Reactions of copper, iron and silver ions. (Laboratory test.)