Applied Thermodynamics



It is intended that the students develop the basic knowledge obtained in Physics II in order to be able to understand and analyze the vapour cycles, the gas cycles, the heating and refrigeration cycles, the hygrometric evolutions and the processes of combustion.


More concretely one intends from students to acquire the basic knowledge for the understanding and analysis of these thermodynamic systems and processes. Acquire the knowledge of the equipment used in these installations.


Know to do mass and energy balances involved in these systems and in each one of its components. Design thermodynamically each one of these components.


It is also intended to develop in the students the skills of: seek for information and process it, ability to work autonomously, self learning, problem solving, apply knowledge to new situations.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

José Fernando de Almeida Dias


Weekly - 5

Total - 80

Teaching language



Available soon


PowerPoints of the classes – available in the course page of CLIP.

Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, H.N. Shapiro e M.J. Moran, John Willey & Sons.

Termodinâmica, Yunus A. Çengel e Michael A. Boles, McGraW-Hill, 2001.

Fundamentos de Termodinâmica Aplicada - Análise Energética e Exergética, P.P. de Oliveira, 1.ª ed., Lidel, 2012.

Engineering Thermodynamics, Work and Heat Transfer, G.F.C. Rogers e Y.R. Mayhew, 4.ª ed. Longman Group UK Ltd.,1992.

Teaching method

In theoretical classes the exposition of the discipline subjects is made, the participation of the students is stimulated.

In the practical classes problems of practical cases in the domain of application of the concepts are presented in order that the students actively collaborate in their resolution.

Evaluation method

 1 - Evaluation Method: 3 mini-tests throughout the semester.

2 - The duration of each mini-test is 1h30.

3 - The Final Result of the continuous evaluation throughout the semester is the average of the marks obtained in the mini-test. Students with Final Note obtained in the mini-test higher than 16 are subject to an oral evaluation.

4 - The Final Result of the students that go to do exam “recurso” is the obtained in the exam. Students with Final Note higher than 16 are subject to an oral evaluation.


Subject matter

1 - Introduction – Revision of the thermodynamic principles for closed systems. First law: internal energy and enthalpy.

2 - Open Systems - The concept of control volume. Balance equations for mass and energy. Application to boilers, condensers, turbines, pumps and compressors. Second law. Isentropic efficiency.

3 - Vapour Power Cycles - Rankine cycle. Reheat and regeneration.

4 - Gas Power Cycles - Simple gas turbine cycle. Optimum pressure ratio. Intercooling and reheating. Quick reference to Otto and Diesel cycles.

5 – Cogeneration. Combined cycles.

6 - Refrigeration Cycles - Reverse Carnot cycle. Practical refrigeration cycles. The heat pump.

7 - Moist Air – Mixtures of perfect gases. Psychrometry. Hygrometric chart. Psychrometric evolutions.

8 - Combustion – Combustion reactions. Adiabatic flame temperature.



Programs where the course is taught: