Maternal and Pediatric Nutrition


a) To know and apply the nutritional and dietary recommendations for pregnant and lactating women
b) To know and apply specific dietary intervention in main comorbidities during the pregnancy
c) To recognize the importance of fetal overnutrition and malnutrition on metabolic and obesity programming
d) To know and apply the recommended measures to promote breastfeeding and to know the nutritional and biological advantages of breastfeeding
e) To recognize the importance of the intestinal microbiota of pregnant women and breastfeeding in modulation of the newborn's microbiota and its impact on infants’ health
f) To know and apply the nutritional and dietary recommendations for pediatric age, including all ages and vegetarian children
g) To recognize the importance of functional nutrients for the child's health
h) To know and advise regular infant formulas for healthy children and special formulas for children with health problems
i) To recognize the importance of early modulation of food preferences for healthy eating
j) To know the scientific basis for complementary feeding and its recommendations, including the introduction of gluten and of potentially allergenic foods 
k) To know how to advise an appropriate feeding schedule for infants, children of preschool and school age, including those with food allergies
l) To know and apply the vitamins and supplements recommendations for the first year of life
m) To know how to advise the diet for adolescents, including those who practice high-performance sports
n) To know the characteristics of different dietary patterns and their impact on health
o) To know the eating habits of Portuguese children and adolescents, based on representative surveys
p) To know and apply recommended tools for assessing nutritional risk in pediatric age
q) To know and apply instruments for assessing the nutritional status of children and adolescents, including food questionnaires, anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition assessment methods
r) To know the principles of indirect calorimetry and how to apply it to guide nutritional intervention
s) Specifically in pediatric obesity: to understand and apply preventive measures and to know the associated comorbidities; to know and apply the criteria for diagnosis, the dietary intervention and monitoring the intervention
t) Specifically in preterm nutrition: to know their needs and nutritional support through parenteral and enteric routes, including the fortification of human milk

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Prof. Doutor Luis Manuel Fernandes Pereira da Silva


Weekly - Available soon

Total - Available soon

Teaching language





- Lammi-Keefe CJ, Couch SC, Kirwan JP, eds. Handbook of Nutrition and Pregnancy. Springer International Publishing AG, 2018. ISBN 978-3-319-90988-2.
- Kleinman RE, Greer FR, eds. Pediatric Nutrition, 8th ed, American Academy of Pediatric, 2019. eISBN: 978-1-61002-361-0.

Teaching method

The Maternal and Pediatric Nutrition curricular unit is organized in theoretical, theoretical-practical and practical classes. Theoretical classes have a duration of 50 minutes, are biweekly and based on expository classes and classes for solving problem-cases. Theoretical-practical classes have a duration of 2 hours, are biweekly and are based on seminars, problem-based learning and journal club. These classes serve as preparation for clinical learning in the field, thus the practical classes follow the theoretical-practical ones, are biweekly have a duration of 2 hours and are based on the transmission of clinical experience and patient-centred assistance.

Evaluation method

The assessment of learning is based on a final written exam and continuous assessment that is based on marks given by teachers in theoretical-practical and practical classes.

Subject matter

Theoretical component
1. Food and nutrition recommendations in pediatrics
2. Programming of metabolic disease and obesity due to fetal overnutrition and malnutrition
3. Nutrition in obese pregnant women with type I and II diabetes
4. Nutrition of pregnant women in the presence of intrauterine growth restriction
5. Breastfeeding: prevalence in Portugal, advantages and contraindications
6. Intestinal microbiota in pregnant women and newborns: current aspects
7. Infant formulas for healthy children: importance of functional nutrients; and Special formulas (hypoallergenic, anti-reflux, lactose-free, semi-elementary and elemental)
8. Vitamins and supplements in the first year of life
9. Food diversification: from empiricism to evidence
10. Food and nutrition at preschool and school age
11. Assessment of nutritional status in the newborn
12. Obesity in children and adolescents: determinants, diagnosis and nutritional assessment and intervention and monitoring
13. Food in the allergic child
14. Special diets, including modular diets and routes of administration
15. Nutrition in diabetes mellitus: classification, comorbidities and intervention
16. Nutrition in chronic disease: liver failure, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, chronic intestinal disease and kidney failure
17. Nutrition in inherited diseases of metabolism: amino acids, organic acidurias, diseases of the urea cycle and diseases of energy metabolism
18. Ketogenic diet: types and clinical applicability
Theoretical-practical component
19. Protein theory: metabolic pathways
20. Analysis of Portuguese literature on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents
21. Feeding schedule for: an infant with 3 months using milk formula, infant with 7 months and an infant with 10 Mmonths
22. Diet for adolescents, including adolescents practicing high-performance sports
23. Vegetarian children: risks and eating schedule
24. Intervention in a child with diabetes mellitus
25. Intervention in a child with constipation and regurgitation
26. Intervention in a child with phenylketonuria
Practical component
27. Nutritional advice in pregnant and lactating women
28. Nutritional advice in healthy children
29. Nutritional intervention in the newborn, particularly in the preterm
30. Nutritional intervention in overweight and obese children
31. Nutritional intervention in the short intestine
32. Nutritional intervention in children with inborn errors of metabolism


Programs where the course is taught: