The main general objective of teaching-learning Human Anatomy: Acquisition of the essential anatomical knowledge and endow the future physician with capacity for its application.

Considering the essential domains of learning: cognitive, psychomotor, affective or attitudes, will be specific objective of teaching-learning.

In the field of knowledge:
- To know and to use the nomenclature of the structures of the human body
- Identify and describe .; the structures)

In the field of skills or performance:
- Note
- description
- Structuring or schematization of knowledge
- Integration of knowledge
- Projection of deep structures on the surface of the human body

Application of knowledge:
- Creative spirit
- critical spirit
- Autonomous learning
- Group work
- Bibliographic research

In the field of attitudes and values:
- Recognize the fundamental importance of Anatomy in the training of the physician
- Develop and demonstrate a taste for learning and learning
- Developing scientific curiosity
- Assume the responsibility of the doctor before society
- Spirit of tolerance
- Increasing Respect for Man

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Prof. Doutor Diogo Pais


Weekly - Available soon

Total - Available soon

Teaching language





Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice – Elsevier – Susan Standring
Gray’s Anatomy for Students – Churchill Livingstone – Richard Drake
Clinically Oriented Anatomy – K. Moore – Williams and Wilkins.
Anatomia Humana da Locomoção – J. A. Esperança Pina - 4ª edição – Lidel, Edições Técnicas.
Anatomia Humana dos Órgãos – J. A. Esperança Pina - 2ª edição – Lidel, Edições Técnicas.
Anatomia Humana do Coração e Vasos – J. A. Esperança Pina - 2ª edição – Lidel, Edições Técnicas.
Anatomia Humana da Relação – J. A. Esperança Pina - 4ª edição – Lidel, Edições Técnicas.
Anatomia Geral e Dissecção Humana – J. A. Esperança Pina, A. Bensabat Rendas, Miguel Correia, J. Goyri O’Neill e Diogo Pais - Lidel, Edições Técnicas.
Atlas de Anatomia Humana – Frank H. Netter – Artmed, Editora.

Bibliografia complementar (recomendada)
* Anatomia Humana (Descritiva, Topográfica e Funcional) – Henry Rouvière e André Delmas – 11ª edição Espanhola, ou 15ª edição Francesa, Masson.
* The Developing Human: Clinical Oriented Embriology – K. Moore – W. B. Saunders.
* Atlas of Human Anatomy with Integrated Text – J. A. Gosling e al. – Churchill Livingstone.
* Sectional Human Anatomy – Han M-C & Kim C-W, Igaku-Shoin.
* Color Atlas of Anatomy – J. Roben & C. Yokochi – Edição em língua portuguesa, inglesa ou espanhola.

Teaching method

In order to achieve the learning objectives of the Anatomy Curricular Unit, the student should attend the Theoretical Course and the Practical Course, which will be complementary, using different pedagogical techniques.

• Theoretical Course - Theoretical classes, 50 minutes duration. The explanation of subjects is preceded by the presentation of the class summary and followed by a period to clarify doubts.
• Practical Course: The Program is integrated in the sequence of the Theoretical Course, being complementary to this. Frequency of 2 weekly sessions of 110 minutes each, to groups of 15 students. The various parameters are:
• Teaching Tutorial open to the participation of the students - with a period of exposition of the subjects by the assistant, followed by a period of exposition by the students.
• Laboratory work with anatomical models and cadaveric material - replacing human cadaveric parts with plastic models will always represent a choice of less reliability. Nothing replaces the fresh or embalmed human corpse.
• Work of Bibliographic Research and Work Project - destined to the training of the bibliographic research of a theme. The results are discussed with the teacher.
• Self-Assessment of Learning :- students are proposed to answer questions from a database held and shared by all teachers.
• Student Assessment

Evaluation method

The elaboration of a uniform evaluation scheme is imperative for the need to standardize criteria that will evaluate the student in a global and continuous way, so it is up to each Faculty to follow the general indications in relation to this point and to make communicate, in the first class , any specifics regarding the class assigned to it.
In Anatomy, the student's assessment should be based on different parameters that evaluate not only their actual level of knowledge, but also their ability to reason, dexterity, innovative capacity, prompt adaptation to new questions and situations that are posed to them .
It is a question, even if indirectly, of evaluating the future doctor, so that his human and ethical capacities must be taken into account, and the student is prepared, from the 1st year of the course, to approach the patient in a perspective scientific and human. Thus the evaluation encompasses:

a) Continuous Practical Assessment (30%)

The continuous evaluation is the responsibility of the assistant of each class and will be processed in all practical classes, checking in the course of the class itself, by approaching the topics taught in the theoretical course. The student should be asked by the teacher, to present subjects, detailing this or that detail, being able by his own initiative to approach the description of a subject in close relation with the purpose of the class in which he participates.

b) Intermediate Written Assessment (20%) - ANATOMY OF LOCOMOTION

Written test consisting of multiple choice questions, true and false, correspondence, image captions and / or short answer. It will be held on November 13, 2019, at 09:00 am in the Auditoriums and rooms to be indicated at the Headquarters of the Medical Sciences Faculty - UNL.

c) Final Evaluation - ORAL FINAL EXAM - 50%

Includes evaluation of all contents considered in the Practical and Theoretical Programs of the Chair. In general, several contributions should be formalized for the final exam grade:

NOTE: Regardless of the Exam Time (1st, 2nd or special) chosen by the students, a valid Practical Assessment (more than 10 values) and valid (ie, referring to the current or previous school year) is mandatory.

Subject matter


- Divisions of Anatomy
- Anatomical or descriptive position and descriptive or reference plans
- Anatomical nomenclature
- Research in Anatomy



General Human Anatomy of Locomotion: General Osteology, General Arthrology, General Mythology, Skin and Appendages, and Surface Anatomy

Osteology of the head: Bones of the skull, face and hyoid bone

Arthropathy of the head

Bone head in general: Skull and face in general.

Cranio facial cavities: nasal cavities, oral, orbits, temporal, infratemporal, and pterygium pits, skull architecture and craniometry

Osteology and Arthrology of the spine

General vertebral column: Outer conformation, curvatures, the spine as a static, kinetic and protective organ

Osteology and Arthrology of the thorax

Thorax in general: external and internal conformation and notions of intra-thoracic splanchnology

Osteology and Arthrology of the lower limb: Lower limb cystogram osteology, Pelvic arthrology, Thigh, leg and foot osteology, Hip, knee, leg, ankle and foot arthrology, Clinical applications (fractures and joint injuries)

Pelvis in general: Pelvis configuration, upper and lower opening, pelvis types and sexual dimorphism

Osteology and Arthrology of the upper limb: Upper limb, arm, forearm and hand osteology, Upper limb, shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand arthrology, and Clinical applications (fractures)

Mythology of the head: Cutaneous head muscles, mimic facials and masticators

Functional Mythology of the Head - Mastication and Facial Mimic

Myology of the neck: Anterolateral and nuchal muscles and Fascias of the neck

Topographic anatomy of the neck region

Functional anatomy of the neck and neck

Myology of the back: Muscles and fascia of the back

Muscles of the thorax: Anterolateral muscles, Diaphragm eFascia of the thorax

Functional-mechanical anatomy of ventilation and clinical application

Myology of the abdomen: Anterolateral muscles of the abdomen and loin-iliac, Aponeuroses of the antero-lateral and posterior muscles of the abdomen

Dependent aponeurosis-dependent formations of abdominal walls - clinical application and concept of abdominal wall weakness

Myology of the lower limb: Muscles of the gluteal region, thigh, legs and foot; Gluteal, femoral fascia, popliteal fossa, leg and foot; Fibrous and synovial sheaths of the tendons of the leg muscles

Functional anatomy of the lower limb

Topographical anatomy of the gluteal region, thigh, knee and leg

Myology of the upper limb: Muscles of the shoulder, arm, forearm and hand; Clavi-pectoral, arm and antebrachial fascia; Fibrous and synovial sheaths of the tendons of the muscles of the forearm.

Topographic anatomy of the axillary dug and hand

Functional anatomy of the upper limb

Clinical application (compressive carpal tunnel syndrome)


Respiratory organs: Nasal cavities and appendages; Nose, nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses; Larynx; Functional anatomy of phonation; Trachea and bronchi; Lungs; Pleuras
Thoraco-pulmonary topography (clinical application) - importance in the objective examination of the tooth and basic references in the normal radiograph of the thorax

Digestive organs: Oral cavity; Dependencies of the oral cavity - gums, teeth, tongue and palatine tonsils; Salivary glands; Pharynx; Esophagus

Anatomophysiology of swallowing

General anatomy of the development of the digestive tract: Stomach

Anatomical anti-reflux mechanisms: Duodenum, jejunum and ileum; large intestine; Straight; Anus; Liver; Bile ducts; Pancreas

Urinary organs: General anatomy of the development of urogenital appliances; Chalices, renal pelvis and ureters; Bladder; Urethra

Endoscopic and radiological anatomy of the urinary system - examples of knowledge application

Male genital organs: Testis; Epididymis; Skeletal scrotum and scrotum sheaths; Spermatic pathways; Prostate, bulb-urethral glands (Cowper); Penis

Female genital organs: Ovaries; Uterine tubes; Uterus; Vagina; Vulva; Minor vestibular glands and major vestibular glands (Bartholin)

Mamas: Anatomy in the mammary gland and its lymphatic drainage - the example of breast cancer

Perineum: Perineum muscles and perineal fascia; Division of perineum

Lymphoid organs: Bone marrow; Thymus; Lymphoepithelial tissues; Lymph nodes; Spleen

Endocrine glands: Hypophyses; Pineal gland; Thyroid gland parathyroid glands; Adrenal glands; Paragangles; Cell groups with locations in organs of other systems; Placenta

Peritoneum: General - description and general topography


General Nevrology

Spinal nerves: Systematization of the medullary and radicular territories; Later branches of the spinal nerves

Cervical plexos

General aspects of clinical application - superficial plexus block and lesion of the phrenic nerve

Brachial plexos

General aspect of upper limb innervation

Intercostal nerves

Lumbar plexos

Sacred plexus

Pudendal plexus

Sacro-coccygeal plexus

General aspect of lower limb innervation

General aspect of perineum innervation

Cranial nerves: oculomotor nerve; Nerve troclear; Abducent nerve; Trigeminal nerve - ophthalmic nerve (Willis), maxillary nerve and mandibular nerve; Facial nerve and intermediate nerve (Wrisberg); Glossopharyngeal nerve; Nervous vagus; Nerve accessory; Hypoglossal nerve

Systematization of Territories of Innervation, application of knowledge in the abstract neurologic examination

Autonomic nervous system: Sympathetic trunk; Intermediate ganglia and pre-visceral plexus and Visceral ganglia and plexus; Paragangles



General anatomy of the heart and vessels

Heart: General considerations; External conformation; Relations; Cardiac cavities - atria and ventricles; Anatomical constitution of the myocardium - fibrous rings and fibrous trigones, muscle fibers and specific fibers; Pericardium; Vascularization and innervation of the heart

Dissection of the heart

Arteries: Artery of the trunk; Abdominal aortic artery; Arteries of the head and neck; Arteries of the upper limb and arteries of the lower limb

Veins: Veins of the head and neck; Veins of the trunk; Veins of limbs

Lymphatics: Lymphatics of the head and neck; Trunk lymphatics; Lymphatics of the upper limb
Lymphatics of lower limb; Supradiaphragmatic terminal lymphatic trunks; Infradiaphragmatic terminal lymphatic trunks

Clinical applications in the context of lymphatic drainage of neoplasms

Special Vascular Anatomy: Vascular Territories: Wolves, Segments, Subsegments; microvascular disease - Scanning electronic microscopy - corrosion casts


Programs where the course is taught: