1. Gain a general view of the problems debated in contemporary epistemology.
2. Relate the problems of knowledge to current epistemology.
3. Understand the fundamental questions of the relationship between philosophy and the various sciences.


General characterization





Responsible teacher

Nuno Carlos da Silva Carvalho Costa Venturinha


Weekly - 4

Total - 168

Teaching language





HUSSERL, E. (1975) Logische Untersuchungen, vol. 1 – Prolegomena zur reinen Logik: Husserliana, vol. 18. Haia: Martinus Nijhoff; (2005) Investigações Lógicas, vol. 1 – Prolegómenos à Lógica Pura. Lisboa: CFUL. [Cap. VII, §40]
KANT, I. (1911) Kritik der reinen Vernunft: Kant‘s gesammelte Schriften, vol. 3. Berlim: Georg Reimer; (1985) Crítica da Razão Pura. Lisboa: FCG. [Pt. II, cap. II, sec. 3]
– (1923) Logik: Kant‘s gesammelte Schriften, vol. 9, 1-150. Berlim: De Gruyter; (2009) Lógica. Lisboa: Texto & Grafia. [Int., caps. IX-X]
RUSSELL, B. (1912) The Problems of Philosophy. Londres: Williams & Norgate; (2008) Os Problemas da Filosofia. Lisboa: Edições 70. [Cap. V]
– (1921) The Analysis of Mind. Londres: George Allen & Unwin. [Cap. XII]
SOSA, E., KIM, J., FANTL, J., McGRATH, M., eds. (2008) Epistemology: An Anthology, 2.ª ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
WITTGENSTEIN, L. (1984) Über Gewissheit: Werkausgabe, vol. 8, 113-257. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp; (1990) Da Certeza. Lisboa: Edições 70. [§§66-192]

Teaching method

The method adopted for the class combines exposition of the readings and commentaries on them along with discussion of student papers.

Evaluation method

each student is required to prepare a review of a contemporary article or book chapter, to be chosen from a list of papers selected by the teacher, that will be presented and discussed in class in a thematic workshop(20%), two exams(80%)

Subject matter

This course is an introduction to epistemology as it has developed since Kant. Starting with the concept of “assent” or “holding true” (Fürwahrhalten) introduced in Kant’s First Critique, attention is next directed to his Logic, where this concept and its three epistemic modes – opinion, belief and knowledge – are examined in connection with other key epistemological concepts. The first part of the course also looks at Husserl’s take on holding true in his early phenomenology apropos of the debate between psychologism and anti-psychologism. The second part of the course traces the development of Russell’s theory of knowledge, which lays emphasis on the function of assent, and explores the significance within contemporary epistemology of the role played by holding true and similar propositional attitudes in Wittgenstein’s later philosophy. The course includes workshops devoted to the Gettier paradox, naturalized epistemology, knowledge-first epistemology and virtue epistemology.


Programs where the course is taught: