Modern Philosophy Themes


1. Analysis and commentary of the texts of the great landmarks of modern philosophy from Hobbes to Kant.
2. Acquiring a thorough and critical knowledge of the program´s authors, namely, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and Kant, through the critical study of fundamental texts of these authors, relating them to other authors of modern philosophy.
3. Understanding the methodological and doctrinal conflicts of the leading philosophers of the modern age, through the interrelationship of the key themes of his philosophical positions.
4. Acquisition of knowledge of the most relevant issues of modern philosophy, enabling critical view of these issues in relation to ancient and medieval tradition.
5. Identification of the break points with big traditional themes, highlighting the specificity of the themes of modern philosophy over traditional.
6. Understanding of the main evolutionary lines of modern philosophy as well as the unity and continuity of its key themes.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Manuel João Celestino de Matos


Weekly - Available soon

Total - 168

Teaching language



Not applicable.


HABERMAS, J. (2003), Direito e Democracia, entre facticidade e validade, trad. F. B. Siebeneichler, Rio de Janeiro, Tempo Brasileiro, 2 vols.
HOBBES, T., Leviathan (1968), ed. C. B. Macpherson. London, Penguin Books.
LOCKE, J. (1970), Two Treatises of Civil Government. London, Everyman´s Library.
ROUSSEAU, J.-J. (1964), Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes , in Œuvres complètes, III, Paris, Gallimard, Pléiade.
ROUSSEAU, J.-J. (1964), Du Contrat social ou les principes du droit politique, Œuvres complètes, III, Paris, Gallimard, Pléiade.


Teaching method

The teaching methods include lectures and practical classes with the same academic weight.

Evaluation method

continuous evaluation and participation in class(20%), frequency(40%), work with oral defense in classroom(40%)

Subject matter

Ethics and Politics in Modern Philosophy from Rousseau to Kant
1. The foundations of Modern Ethics.
2. The difference and complementarity between Morality and Politics in Modern Philosophy.
3. Moral Science and Rousseau´s Politics and the modern natural right.
4. Rousseau, Kant and the principles of "political right".
5. Positive liberty and negative liberty: the principle of differentiation after Hobbes to Kant.



Programs where the course is taught: