a) To attain the theoretical tools required for analysis of the logical structure of sentences.
b) To acquire the ability to investigate the formal validity of inferences.
João de Deus Santos Sàágua
Weekly - 4
Total - 168
• Copi, I. M., Introduction to Logic, Collier Macmillan Publ., London, 1982
• Howson, Colin, Logic with Trees, Routledge, London and New York, 1997
• Jeffrey, Richard, Formal Logic / Its Scope and Limits, Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., Indianapolis/Cambridge, 2006
• Newton-Smith, W. H., Logic, Routledge, London, 1991 (corrected edition)
• Quine, W.V., Methods of Logic, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1974
• Sàágua, J., Lógica para as Humanidades, Editora Colibri, 2001
In class teaching
Final written examination(60%), Half-term test(40%)
Introduction to first-order logic with identity:
• Logical analysis of natural language sentences and arguments.
• Study of the syntactic and semantic properties of logical operators, and identification of their natural language counterparts.
• Introduction of a formal language, and characterization of its syntax and semantics.
• Study of various procedures and techniques for the formalization of gradually more complex natural language sentences.
• Elucidation — intuitive (first moment), rigorous (second moment) — of various crucial logical notions: validity, consequence, consistency and model.
• Introduction to natural deduction calculus as an instrument for proving the logical validity of arguments.
Programs where the course is taught: