a) To Understand the importance of temporal and spatial variation of ecological factors;
b) To identify the main limiting ecological factors in the diverse ecological systems;
c) To Relate biocenoses to ecological factors;
d) To know the bioclimatic mosaic of the Globe;
e) To Recognize natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the dynamics of ecosystems;
f) To Reflect on major environmental problems.


General characterization





Responsible teacher

Ana Isabel Costa Febrero de Queiroz


Weekly - 4

Total - 168

Teaching language





Bailey, R.(2009). Ecoregions - The Ecosystem Geography of the Oceans and Continents (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.

Carapeto, C. (1994). Ecologia. Princípios e conceitos. Lisboa: Universidade Aberta

Demangeot, J. (2000). Os Meios Naturais do Globo. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.

Mitsh, W.J., Gosselink, J.G (2000). Wetlands (3ª ed.). New York: Wiley.

Odum, E. P. (2001). Fundamentos de Ecologia (6ª ed.). Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.

Ramade, F. (2003). Elements d’Ecologie. Ecologie fondamentale (3ª ed.). Paris: Dunod.

Soromenho-Marques, V. (2010). O ambiente na Encruzilhada. Por um Futuro sustentável. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian e Esfera do Caos.

Teaching method

Theory expositive classes, where the program topics are presented and debated with the students

Practical classes to prepare and support a research work (maximum 3 elements) about a issue related with the program topics. It is required to present a case study.

Evaluation method

Participation in a research work, with oral presentation(40%), Reading a set of selected texts, whose contents shall be evaluated through a written test(60%)

Subject matter

1) Introduction: Concepts and Definitions
2) Constituents of the natural environment
3) Ecological factors and their influence on living beings
4) Populations, Biocenoses and Ecosystems
5) Bioclimatic Mosaic of the Planet
6) Anthropogenic influence on the natural environment
7) Imbalances, disturbances and readjustments in the dynamics of ecosystems
8) Current environmental problems


Programs where the course is taught: