Ethnographic Methods


1. To develop skills in the construction of anthropological research problems
2. To develop knowledge on the different dimensions of the ethnographic method
3. To develop skills in data collection, data analysis and to write research results
4. To develop the ability to identify and critically apply methods and techniques of research to different empirical contexts
5. To develop research exercises in familiar contexts

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Sónia Isabel Vespeira de Almeida


Weekly - 4

Total - 168

Teaching language



Research Methodology


ALMEIDA, S.V., CACHADO, R. A. (eds.), 2016, Os Arquivos dos Antropólogos, Lisboa, Palavrão
MADDEN, R., 2012, Being Ethnographic. A Guide to the theory and Practice of Ethnography, Los Angels, California, New Dehli, Singapore, Sage.
ROBEN, A.C.G.M.; SLUKA, J. A. (eds), 2008, Ethnographic Fieldwork. An Anthropological Reader, Malden, Blackwell Publishing.
SANJEK, R. (eds.), 1990, Fieldnotes. The Makings of Anthropology, Ithaca, London, Cornell University Press.
SANJEK, R., 2013, Ethnography in Today’s World. Color Full Before Color Blind, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Press.
SMITH et al, 2015, Extraordinary encounters. Authenticity and the Interview, New York, Oxford, Berghahn Books.
TOREN, C.; PINA-CABRAL, J. de (eds.), 2011, The Challenge of Epistemology, New York, Oxford, Berghahn Books.

Teaching method

The course is organized in three types of classes:
1. Lectures
2. Practical lessons organized around the preparation of the exercise research
3. Seminars centred on discussion of texts about the different dimensions of the ethnographic method

Evaluation method

10% - Essay about one of the texts of the seminar 10% - Regular attendance and active participation in class, seminars and practical exercises(20%), Exercise research carried out by groups of students(40%), Written Test(40%)

Subject matter

1. The "ethnographic magic": an introduction to ethnographic method
2. Ethnography: main concepts and the specificity of anthropological knowledge
3. The ethnographic research cycle
4. Ethics in anthropological research
5. Entering in the "field"
5.1. Constructing the field: observation scale, access, informants
5.2. Fieldwork and participant observation
5.3. Record and writing: fieldnotes, field diary, the use of image, ethnographic drawing
5.4. Interviews: different types of interviews, the specificity of the ethnographic interview, procedures
5.5. Biographical interviews: collect and analysis of biographical materials
6. The archive and the document
7. Data analysis and writing ethnography
8. Anthropologists’ archives


Programs where the course is taught: