Hydraulics II


Hydraulics II curricular unit prepares students for civil engineering careers in the fields of planning, design, construction and management of water and wastewater systems as well as in the field of hydraulic structures for dams, irrigation schemes and drainage works.

Hydraulic II curricular unit covers concepts, methods and principles that provide a solid background in hydraulics and aim to allow a theoretical and practical approach to real-world problems and issues focusing in pipelines unsteady flows, open-channel flows, weirs and spillways, flows in porous media as well as in turbomachines.

In particular, it is intended that the student acquires the following skills: i) to design and to analyze of pipe systems including pumps and turbines; ii) to determine flow rates through orifices and over weirs and to design discharge for several types of civil engineering works; (iii) knowledge in on open channel flow and hydraulic structures and design of irrigation channels and urban sewers iv) knowledge in groundwater aquifers, subsurface flow and hydraulics of wells.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

António Pedro de Nobre Carmona Rodrigues, Maria Teresa Fontelas Santos Viseu


Weekly - 5

Total - Available soon

Teaching language



The requirements of this curricular unit are:

  • mandatory assistance of practical classes
  • participation in 3 laboratory sessions and elaboration of the respective reports 

Laboratory sessions are demonstrative:

  • the first session aims at determining the characteristic curves of hydraulic pumps both isolated or in series/parallel operating conditions
  • the second session concerns steady open-channel flows
  • the third session is an experimental demonstration of flows in porous media

Students will have the opportunity to consolidate some of the subjects treated in theoretical and practical classes through experimental approaches.


1. Lencastre, A. (1983). “General Hydraulics (in portuguese)”, Hidroprojecto, Lisboa.

2. Manzanares A. (1980). “General Hydraulics (in portuguese)”, TÉCNICA, A.E.I.S.T., Lisboa.

3. Quintela, A. (1998). “Hidráulics (in portuguese)”, 6ª edição. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa.

4. Chow, V.T. (1959). “Open Channel Hydraulics”, McGraw-Hill.

5. Evett, J.B., Liu, C. (1988). "2500 solved problems in Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics", McGraw-Hill.

6. Chaudhry, M. H. (1993). “Open Channel Flow”. Prentice Hall.

Teaching method

Theoretical and practical lectures.

Evaluation method

The evaluation of this Curricular Unit will be carried out through the performance of two tests concerning Theoretical and Practical subjects. Each tests will have a duration of 2.0h and the final classification will be the average of both tests classifications.

There will also be a 2.5 hours Appeal Exam for students who have not passed the Final Exam or wish to improve their ranking.

Each of these exams will be classified from 0 to 20 values.

Subject matter

1. Characteristics and choice of turbines. Operating conditions of turbines

2. Characteristics and choice of  pumps.Operating conditions of pumps. Pumps in series and in parallel.

3. Unsteady pressurized flow. Water hammer, surge waves and mass oscillation

4. Flow discharge through orifices and weirs. Application to spillways

5. Hydraulics measurements: water levels, velocity, pressure, flows, scour

6. Flows through porous media. Darcy law. Main equation that governs flow in aquifers and wells

7. Open channel flows within channels, sewers and rivers. Steady uniform flow: Chezy and Manning equations, optimal trapezoidal section, compound and mixed open channels, normal depth calculation in channels and sewers. Gradually varied flows: specific energy, critical depth, critical slope. Backwater curves for constant and space varied flow discharge in prismatic and non-prismatic open channels. Rapidly varied flow: hydraulic jump.


Programs where the course is taught: