Surveying and Geographic Information Technologies


At the end of the course of TTIG, the students should: 

- understand and apply the principles of cartographic representation and conventions;

- know how and where to aquire cartographic data;

- get information on available cartography;

- deal with field work equipment and procedures, and how to proceed with work at office;

- become familiar with the basics of the geographic information science;

- become trained in spatial analysis approaches in the field of Environmental Engineering problems;

- be able to deal with a Geographic Information System to solve a problem in the field of Environmental Engineering;

- be able to understand the market of geographic information technologies;

- be able to ask for a topography work to specialists, and control its quality;

- believe in their own creativity, individual initiative, ambition, and self-confidence.


General characterization





Responsible teacher

Maria Júlia Fonseca de Seixas


Weekly - 5

Total - 65

Teaching language





Casaca, J., Matos, J., Baio, M. (2005) Topografia Geral, Lidel

Gaspar, J. A. (2000) Cartas e Projecções Cartográficas, Lidel

Gonçalves, J. A., Madeira, S., Sousa, J.J. (2008) Topografia – Conceitos e Aplicações, Lidel

Principles of Geographical Information Systems (Spatial Information Systems), Peter A. Burrough, Rachael A. McDonnell 356 pages, Oxford University Press, USA; 2 edition (April 1, 1998) ISBN: 0198233663
Geographic Information Systems and Science, Paul A. Longley, Michael F. Goodchild, David J. Maguire, David W. Rhind 536 pages, John Wiley & Sons; 2 edition (April 5, 2005) ISBN: 047087001X
Environmental Modeling with GIS, Eds.Michael F. Goodchild, Bradley O. Parks, Louis T. Steyaert, Oxford University Press, USA (December 14, 2005), ISBN: 0195080076.
GIS, Spatial Analysis, and Modeling, Eds. by Michael Batty, David Maguire, Michael Goodchild, Esri Press (August 1, 2005), ISBN: 1589481305.

Teaching method

The teaching method is mainly supported by three formats:

(1) weekly lectures given by the teacher, that always precede practical classes where concepts, procedures, algorithms and pracedures of problem-solving about topography and geographic information,  are presented and discussed in the classroom. The application nature in theEnvironmental Engineering field is always underlined.

(2) Practical classes, focusing on the material presented in the lecture given earlier in the week, where they develop reasoning skills, engineering practices, and practical skills in geographic information systems software. Students prepare, define and solve problems of Environmental Engineering, supported by spatial information.

(3) Self-learning, and individual inititive, within a specific home work that requires (i) the selection of a problem / issue of environmental engineering supported by Geographic Information Technologies, (ii) the search for information, particularly in bibliographic databases, which features the chosen problem, (iii) the structuring and writing of a technical article in accordance with the rules of scientific and technical writing. This work is corrected and discussed with each group in a peer-reviewing process, having, in most cases, the need for resubmission of the article.

Throughout the semester, students use most often the forum of the course (Moodle) to discuss practical aspects of problems and take questions, continuously during the learning period.

Evaluation method

The evaluation of TTIG is continuous and is supportted by: (1) Continuous evaluation through resolution of assignments in practical classes, allowing students to continuously measure the degree of acquired knowledge, and self-assessment questions, allowing students to continuously measure the degree of knowledge acquired, (2) 2 TPCs that aim to settle the practical component of learning, one of them with the purpose of training the skills of technical writing; (3) 2 tests to assess concepts, one focusing on Topography, and the other on Geographic Information Technologies.

TTIG requires frequency for approval and weighs 50% of the final grade (even in the case the student will get the exam), being obtained as follows:

1 - Need to attend at least 2/3 of practical classes (unless employed student, or the student has frequency obtained in a previous year, or if the student comes from a more advance year of the Master)


9.5 or higher grade average in the TOTAL of homework done

To obtain the final note, the Test / Exam weighs 50%.

Final Exam:

- is always done with ALL subjects;

- is done by those who did not perform the tests or had less than 9.5 at their average values ​​or whoever wants to improve the grade in the tests component.

In conclusion:

Final grade = [0,5*(4 homeworks) ]+[ 0,5*(2 Tests ou Final Exam)]

Each parcel must has a minimal grade of 9,5 values. 


Subject matter


Cartography and Geodesy, Coordinate Systems, Measurement Systems, Cartographic Projections, National Reference Systems, Applications of the topography.

Reviews of Mathematics (Units of measure, plane trigonometry, metric relations, triangle / rectangle, etc ...). Cartographic projections (Rudderpropeller, Conical, Cylindrical). Coordinate transformation.

National Cartography (types, scales, ...); Geodetic Network; Determination of areas (analytical and geometrical Methods); Determination of distances; Triangulation.

Surveying: General Concepts (measuring distances, angles, horizontal and vertical directions and determination of azimuths; Topographic equipment, measurements of angles and distances; Determination of coordinates.

Leveling: Understanding altimetry, types of leveling

Topographic Representation: Planimetry; Altimetry; curves level; points listed, digital terrain models (DTM)


Geograhic Informations Science and Systems: concepts, structure, technology, application fields, market. Infrastrutures of geographic information. Geographic data models.

Spatial analysis: map algebra.

Linear regression. Principal component analysis. Analysis of variance.

Interpolation methods: trend analysis, Thiessen polygons, linear regression methods.

Interpolation methods: geostatistics, variogram analysis, kriging.

Time change analysis in geographic information. 

Public access to spatial information. Infrastruture of spatial data. Digital libraries. Introduction to environmental remote sensing.