Basics of Toxicology


- basic knowledge on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, metabolism and toxicology as well as the biological and chemical mechanisms of these phenomena.

- understand the toxic biological effects due to exposure to environmental xenobiotics, food xenobiotics or pharmacological agents.

- understand the toxicological consequences associated with inter-individual variations in biotransformation enzymes, genetic polymorphisms and genetic variation in drug metabolism .

- knowledge of practical examples of the application of these concepts in the clinics, research and industry

- skills concerning analytical methodologies applied in pharmacology and toxicology studies

- knowledge on the national, European and worldwide regulations, their differences, similarities and implications.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

António Sebastião Rodrigues


Weekly - 2

Total - 28

Teaching language



Available soon


Timbrell, J. A. (2008). Principles of biochemical toxicology. CRC Press.
Casarett & Doull''''s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition, Curtis D. Klaasen, Ed.
The bibliography will also consist of recent original scientific articles in specialized journals and review articles (e.g. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology).

Teaching method

28 hours of theoretical lectures.

Evaluation by written examination.
Given the COVID-19 pandemic, the seminar shall be a written essay in groups of 2-3 students. (60:40).

Evaluation method

The evaluation will comprise a final exam and a group seminar. Minimum grade will be ≥9,50 = 10

Written Exam (EE) = 60% final classification
Without consultation. Questions with multiple choice questions, assay and problem solving.
Written Exam is subject to grade improvement.

Seminar (S) = 40% final classification
Seminar (S): Written essay of  a topic in toxicology by groups of 2-3 students.

Evaluation Criteria (S):
• Critical analysis
• Capacity of Synthesis
• Bibliographic search

Admission to Seminary requires:
• Reception of a presentation summary (maximum 250 words) 7 days before the date of the presentation.

The seminar is not subject to grade improvement.
The grade of the seminar can be carried over to the next year if the student has had approval ≥9,50 = 10

Subject matter

1. Brief history of toxicology. Basic principles of toxicology. The dose-response relationship. Disposition of xenobiotics.
2. Absorption, distribution and excretion of xenobiotics.
3. Toxicogenomics and toxicogenetics. Personalized Medicine.
4. Genetic toxicology. Radiobiology.
5. Toxicology of Pesticides.
6. Toxicology of Metals.
7. Risk assessment.
8. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS). Endocrine disrupters. Dioxins.
9. Toxicology of Metals: Cd, Hg, As.


Programs where the course is taught: