Solid State Physics



One intends to focus the fundamental concepts of Condensed Matter, emphasizing the applications to engineering and life problem systematization and solving. Fundamental proprieties of Condensed Matter will be verified in experimental laboratory sessions, involving the comprehension of experimental setups, data collecting and treatment systematization and elaboration of scientific reports.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Ana Cristina Gomes da Silva, Gregoire Marie Jean Bonfait


Weekly - 5

Total - 60

Teaching language



First and second year grade Physics and Mahtematics; Quantum Mechanics; Statistical Physics


4. Bibliography

Introduction to Solid State Physics, C. Kittel, 7th edition (Wiley)

Introdução à Física Estatística, J.P. Casquilho e P.I. Teixeira, IST Press (2011)

Fundamentals of Condensed Matter and CrystallinePhysics, D.L. Sidebottom (Cambridge UniversityPress 2012)

R. Turton,  The Physics of Solids,  ed. Oxford University Press (2000)

Other Books for reviews:

[1]        Arthur Beiser, Perspectives of Modern Physics, Internatio. 1981.

[2]        Zajac and Hecht, Optics. Addison Wesley, 1974.

[3]        A. & Finn, Física volume II Campos e Ondas, Brasileira. 1972.


Teaching method

Theoretical lectures, twice a week total 2.5h

Practical sessions in the laboratory every week, and problem resolution sessions.

Evaluation method


Adaptation of the solid state physics evaluation method

With the accomplishment of the two remote tests (AD): Moodle Platform and Zoom for monitoring.

There will be no minimum grade in any of the tests (T1 and T2). The test date remains the same as that established at the beginning of the semester.

The evaluation of the practical component is carried out remotely, with delivery of reports and short monographs and presentation, maintaining the delivery dates of the respective works / reports / monographs, according to the initial schedule established for the practical component.

The presentation of papers / monographs and discussion of reports from all students will be made in the presence of two teachers The final average obtained by the results of the 2 tests together with the results of the evaluation of the practical component will be integrated in Season 1.

In case of non-approval of the continuous assessment (Season 1) - there will be an appeal exam in Season 2.

Initially it was defined for the final average (35% T1 + 35% T2) + Practical component 30%.


Theory:  2 tests and / or final exam 

Theory grade: simple average of the grades of the tests or the exam grade

A successful  result in the theory assessment is required  - minimum grade: 10 in 20


works + reports + oral presentation of each work

More detailed information in "Calendarização" - folder - Protocolos.

50% Report * 50% oral presentation and discussion


A successful  result in the laboratory assessment is required  - minimum grade: 10 in 20

Final grade

The final grade is the average of 70% of the theory grade and 30% of the laboratory grade.

 Sudents with a previous year(s) successeful assessment in the laboratory component are only assessed relative to the theory and the final grade is given by the theory grade

Subject matter

Solid State Physics Program

1. Crystals and crystalline solids
1.2 Crystalline lattice.
1.2 Labelling crystal planes.

1.3 Reciprocal lattice

1.4 X-ray diffraction

1.5 Lattice defects

2. Thermal properties of solids
2.1 Thermal vibrations of the atoms. Phonons.
2.2 Thermal expansion.
2.3 Contribution of thermal vibrations of crystalline lattice for the heat capacity of the solids.
2.3.1 Classical approach.
2.3.2 Einstein Model.
2.3.3 Debye Model 
2.4 Thermal conductivity.

3. Electrical Properties of metals
1.1 Classical theory of conduction in metals.
1.2 Failures of the classical model.
1.3 Fermi-Dirac distribution
1.4 The density of states.
1.5 The free electron model.
1.6 The density of occupied states.
1.7 Introduction to band theory of electrical conduction.

4. Semiconductors
2.1 Band theory of solids –again.
2.2 The difference between insulators and semiconductors.
2.3 Holes.
2.4 The effective mass.
2.5. n-type and p-type semiconductors. Hall effect.
2.6 The free electron model applied to semiconductors.

5. Magnetic properties of solids
4.1 Macroscopic magnetic quantities.
4.2 Atomic magnetic moment.
4.3 Paramagnetism. Brillouin theory.
4.4 Ferromagnetism. Weiss theory. Landau theory. Ferromagnetic domains.

6. Optical Properties.


Programs where the course is taught: