Physics II


At the end of this subject the student should have obtained knowledge, ability and competences in

-the physical processes and the Laws of Thermodynamics, in particular a) heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation b) phase transitions c) thermodynamic cycles for the study of heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators and the calculation of the respective efficiency when opperating with ideal gases in reversible processes d) entropy and its production in concrete processes e) thermodynamic potentials f) experimental study of some of these processes

General characterization





Responsible teacher

António Alberto Dias, Maria Adelaide de Almeida Pedro de Jesus


Weekly - 4

Total - 69

Teaching language



Approval in the subjects

"Análise Matemática I"


"Física I" 

is recommended.


A: Fundamentals of Physics; Halliday/Resnick/Walker

B: Física (um curso universitário); Alonso e Finn ed. Brasileira, 1981, vol 1

C: Sebenta Fis II em Documentação de Apoio – Acetatos

D: Physics; Paul Tipler and Gene Mosca

E: Physics; Kane & Sternheim


Teaching method

General information about the functioning of this course unit, such as rules, important dates, evaluation notes and other complementary information are available on the course''s page in the clip. Documentation necessary for the realization of practical classes should be consulted in the CLIP in the folder “Protocols”. The program, program contents of the classes and the bibliography, are available on the page of the discipline in the clip.

The Physics II curricular unit is divided into a theoreticalcomponent (T); a problem solving component (TP); and in a practical part (P - Laboratory). Theoretical classes have a duration of 2.5 hours a week (1 h + 1:30 h) and problem classes have a duration of 1 h weekly. Laboratory classes have a workload of two hours, every two weeks.

T classes serve to introduce students to the structural content of this course, thermodynamics. In TP classes there will be a discussion and resolution of problems in applying the concepts exposed in the T. In the P, laboratory classes, experimental work is carried out with the aim of monitoring and verifying physical phenomena and processes described in the theoretical-practical classes and to develop skills in laboratory setup and experimentation. They also serve to introduce the handling of devices (multimeters, scales, thermometers, voltage sources, heat sources, etc ...).


Evaluation method

Continuous assessment of knowledge (see details in portuguese)

Subject matter

1. Energy
1.1 Energy revisited
1.2 Internal Energy

2. Kinetic Theory of Gases
2.1 Pressure, Temperature
2.2 Equipartition of Energy, Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
2.3 Mean Free Path, Diffusion, Osmotic Pressure.

3. Fluids
3.1 Density and Pressure: barometric, manometric (gauge) and absolute
3.2 Archimedes’law
3.3 Continuity and Bernoulli’s Equations
3.4 Applications: Flight; Venturi’ tube.
3.5 Viscosity; regime of movement of viscous fluids
3.6 Poiseuille’s Law

4. Thermodynamics Concepts and Wording
4.1 Systems
4.2 Properties
4.3 Processes

5. Temperature
5.1 Thermal Equilibrium. Zero Law of Thermodynamics
5.2 Thermometric Properties
5.3 Temperature Scales

6. State Equations
6.1 State Equation and P-V-T surface
6.2 State Equation of an ideal gas
6.3 State Equation of a real gas
6.4 Phase transitions

7. Thermal Properties of Matter
7.1 Expansion and Compression
7.2 Specific heat

8. The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
8.1 Work
8.2 Heat
8.3 Energy Conservation – The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
8.4 Enthalpy
8.5 Internal Energy Equations
8.6 Adiabatic Processes

9. Heat Transfer
9.1 Conduction
9.2 Convection
9.3 Radiation

10. Thermal Engines, Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
10.1 Energy flux diagram of a thermal engine; Efficiency
10.2 External combustion motors – Stirling e and Steam Machine
10.3 External combustion motors – Otto
10.4 Energy flux diagram of a refrigerator; Coefficient of performance
10.5 Energy flux diagram of a heat pump; Coefficient of performance

11. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
11.1 Second Law – Kelvin and Clausius versions
11.2 Carnot theorem; Thermodynamic Temperature
11.3 Entropy
11.4 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; Clausius Inequality
11.5 Microscopic Vision of Entropy
11.6 T-S Diagrams

12. Fundamental Equations and Thermodynamic Potentials
12.1 TdS Equations; Examples of Application
12.2 Thermodynamic Potentials; System Evolution towards equilibrium

13. The 3rd Law of Thermodynamics
13.1 3rd Law of Thermodynamics
13.2 Consequences of the third law

14. Open Systems
14.1 Modification of the Equations
14.2 Chemical Potential
14.3 Phase Transitions 
14.4 Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
14.5 Thermodynamic vision of diffusion and osmotic pressure