Fundamentals of Mineralogy and Geology


 The main goal is to teach the future Conservator-Restorer how to correctly face stone as a material used in Cultural Heritage buildings and monuments, regarding their physical, chemical, textural and mineralogical specificities.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Joaquim António dos Reis Silva Simão, Nuno Gonçalo Figueiredo de Freitas Leal


Weekly - 5

Total - 51

Teaching language



  General Chemistry.



Aires–Barros, L. (2001) – As rochas dos monumentos portugueses. Tipologias e patologias. Instituto Português do Património Arquitectónico, Ministério da Cultura, Lisboa, Vol. I e II, 535 p.

Carvalho, A. M. G. (1996)- Geologia: Morfogénese e Sedimentogénese. Universidade Aberta. Lisboa, 189 p.

Carvalho, A. M. G. (1996)- Geologia: Petrogénese e Orogénese. Universidade Aberta. Lisboa, 159 p.

Press, F. & Siever, R. (1998) - Understanding Earth, 2nd. Ed. Freeman. 682p.

Teaching method

Theoretical expositive classes, with interactivity with the teacher and practical laboratory classes, with the purpose of working the concepts presented on the theoretical classes.
Use of support material such as PowerPoint presentations, on theoretical classes.
Use of hans-specimens and thin-sections, as well as support materials such as microscopes.

Evaluation method

ACCESS TO EXAMINATION CONDITION:  presence on 2/3 of the practical classes.


Continuous evaluation by means of 4 partial examinations (25%, each) + evaluation during the classes, including assiduity, punctuality and participation (20%).


Final examination


In any evaluation moment, students must also take into consideration the provisions of nº3 of article 10º of the ''Evaluation Rules of FCT NOVA'', “When fraud or plagiarism is proven in any of the evaluation elements of a UC, students directly involved are outright disapproved at UC, (…). ”.

Subject matter

 Theoretical Program:

Introduction to Geology.

The minerals: physical and chemical characteristics. Mineral classification.

Magmatism in the Rock Cycle context. Magma genesis and evolution processes. Igneous Rocks characterization and classification (intrusive and extrusive rocks).

The Sedimentary Environment: The agents of Weathering and Erosion. Sedimentogenesis and Diagenesis in the Rock Cycle context. Main characteristics of the Sedimentary Environment. Sedimentary Rocks characterization and classification (detrital and chemogenic rocks).

Metamorphism in the Rock Cycle context. Agents and types of metamorphism. Metamorphic Rocks characterization and classification (rocks with and without schistosity).

Brittle and ductile deformation: compressive and distensive deformational regimes. Fragile and ductile behaviors of the materials. Folding and types of folds. Failure and types of faults.


Practical Program:

Characteristics to attain for a correct mineral identification: colour, hardness, luster, HCl reaction, magnetism and other properties.

Observation, description and classification of the main minerals usually present in rocks.

Rocks study: texture and mineralogy.

Observation, description and classification of igneous rocks in hand-specimen.

Observation, description and classification of sedimentary rocks in hand-specimen.

Observation, description and classification of metamorphic rocks in hand-specimen.

Observation and description of rocks and ceramic materials under the petrographic microscope.


Programs where the course is taught: