Food Safety


The aim of this unit is to give students in-depth knowledge and skills in food safety in order to meet the society challenges. The future nutritionists will be encouraged to think critically about the factors influencing the transmission of foodborne diseases and further, prevention measures. At the end of this unit, students should have acquired a comprehensive understanding of food safety in an increasingly globalised and complex food chain. At the end of this unit the student will be able to:
- Identify the potential food hazards and the corresponding contamination sources.
- Recognise the factors that affect microbial growth.
- Understand the applicable legislation and identify the competent authorities.
- Understand the importance of the good hygiene practices and the prerequisite programmes applicable throughout the food chain, namely in farming, food manufacturing and catering.
- Establish, implement and manage a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system.
- Apply concepts of bromatology and microbiology to decide which analytical method are more appropriated for a specific food contamination.
- Understand the importance of traceability systems throughout the food chain.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Prof. Doutor André Rosário


Weekly - Available soon

Total - Available soon

Teaching language





• Norman G. Marriott, M. Wes Schilling, Robert B. Gravani. Principles of Food Sanitation. Sixth Edition. Springer. 2018. ISBN 9783319671642.
• Carol A. Wallace, William H. Sperber, Sara E. Mortimore. Food Safety for the 21st Century: Managing HACCP and Food Safety Throughout the Global Supply Chain. Second Edition. Wiley. 2018. ISBN 9781119053576.
• Sara Mortimore, Carol Wallace. HACCP: A Practical Approach. Third Edition. Springer. 2013. ISBN 9781461450283.
• Alexandra Veiga, Ana Lopes, Elisa Carrilho, Lubélia Silva, et al. Perfil de Risco dos Principais Alimentos Consumidos em Portugal. Autoridade de Segurança Alimentar e Económica. 2009.

Bibliografia Complementar
• Livro Branco sobre a Segurança dos Alimentos. Comissão Europeia. 2000.
• Food Hygiene: Basic Texts. Fourth Edition. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2009.
• Paulo Baptista, Armando Venâncio. Os Perigos para a Segurança Alimentar no Processamento de Alimentos. Forvisão. 2003. ISBN 9729909938.
• Peter Wareing. HACCP: A Toolkit for Implementation. Second Edition. Royal Society of Chemistry. 2010. ISBN 9781905224975.
• João Noronha, Paulo Baptista. Segurança Alimentar em Estabelecimentos Agro-Alimentares: Projecto e Construção. Forvisão. 2003. ISBN 9729909911.
• Paulo Baptista, Gabriela Pinheiro, Pedro Alves. Sistemas de Gestão de Segurança Alimentar. Forvisão. 2003. ISBN 9729909946.
• Paulo Baptista, João Noronha, João Oliveira, Jorge Saraiva. Modelos Genéricos de HACCP. Forvisão. 2003. ISBN 9729909954.
• Paulo Baptista, Mário Linhares. Higiene e Segurança Alimentar na Restauração. Volume I - Iniciação. Forvisão. 2005. ISBN 9729909962.
• Paulo Baptista, Christine Antunes. Higiene e Segurança Alimentar na Restauração. Volume II - Avançado. Forvisão. 2005. ISBN 9729909989.
• Paulo Baptista. Higienização de Equipamentos e Instalações na Indústria Agro-Alimentar. Forvisão. 2003. ISBN 972990992X.
• Silvia Judite Viegas. Alterações do Estado de Saúde Associadas à Alimentação: Contaminação Microbiológica dos Alimentos. Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge. 2009. ISBN 9789728643539.

Teaching method

The unit is organised in lectures and practical classes: 1) 50-minute lecture classes twice a week; and 2) 2-hour practical classes, with a maximum of 15 students, once a week.

Evaluation method

The final evaluation has a practical component and a final examination, both expressed on a 0-20 scale. The practical continuous assessment, corresponds to 40% of the final grade, and takes into account the following criteria: a) student performance and attendance (10%); b) quality of the practical reports (15%); and c) one oral presentation (15%). The final examination consists of a written exam and will contribute 60% to the final score. The students must attend at least 2/3 of the practical classes and obtained a minimum grade of 9.5 in the practical component in order to qualify for the final examination. A minimum grade of 9.5 in the written exam is mandatory for approval.

Subject matter

Food-borne hazards.
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect microbial growth.
The principles of precaution, transparency and responsibility

European Union legislation on food hygiene.
Implementation of European legislation at national level.
European and national competent authorities.

Construction and layout of buildings; layout of premises and workspace.
Premises and equipment suitability and maintenance; utensils and packaging.
Water supply; waste management; pest and animal control.
Cleaning and disinfection; Management of chemicals.
Personnel hygiene and employee facilities.
Personnel training programme.
Qualification of suppliers and management of purchased materials.
Supervise and manage the reception, storage and shipping.
Measures to prevent cross-contamination.
Control of operations: thawing, preparation, cooking, portioning, cooling, storage, transport, food reheating and service.
Traceability, notification and product recall.
Product information and consumer awareness.
Documentation and records.
Management and supervision.

HACCP system overview.
Principles of HACCP: 1. Conduct a hazard analysis; 2. Determine the critical control points (CCP); 3. Define critical limits for each CCP; 4. Establish monitoring procedures for each CCP; 5. Determine corrective actions; 6. Establish verification procedures; 7. Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.
Implementation and maintenance of a HACCP system.
Case studies.

Globalisation of the food supply with food safety implications (rapid dissemination of foodborne diseases).
Biotracing of biological contaminants.
Prevention and mitigation of bioterrorism.
Continuous temperature monitoring along the food supply chain.
Trust and interdependence in food supply chain.


Programs where the course is taught: