Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Targets I


By the end of the course the student should be able to show:
Knowledge about the causes and mechanisms that explain the pathophysiological changes of diseases, from a conceptual perspective that goes from the body systems to the molecule.
Skills of critical thinking, applied to the interpretation of the pathophysiological mechanisms, using the method of construction and analysis of concept maps.
Attitudes of information research, individually or in groups, leading to an adequate utilization of available human and technological resources for pathophysiology learning.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Prof. Doutor Nuno Neuparth


Weekly - Available soon

Total - Available soon

Teaching language





• Pathophysiology of Disease; McPhee SJ. Hammer D McGraw-Hill, 8th edition, November 2018.
• Fisiopatologia: fundamentos e aplicações - Anabela Mota Pinto; 2th ed; Lidel 2016.
• Pathophysiology; Damjanov. WB Elsevier Saunders Co, 2009.
• Color Atlas of Pathophysiology; Silbernagl, Lang F Thieme, Thieme Publishers, New York, Stuttgart. 2016. MedMaps for Pathophysiology; Yasmeen Agosti, Pamela Duke, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.
• Renal Pathophysiology: The essentials – Helmut Rennke & Bradley M. Denker 4th ed, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014.
• Pathophysiology of Heart Disease – Leonard S. Lilly, 6th ed, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2016.
• Respiratory Pathophysiology: The essentials – John B. West 8th ed. Williams & Wilkins, 2013.
• António B. Rendas, Marta Fonseca and Patrícia Rosado Pinto. Toward meaningful learning in undergraduate medical education using concept maps in a PBL pathophysiology course. Adv Physiol Educ 30: 23–29, 2006.
• Marta Fonseca; Beatriz Oliveira; Pedro Carreiro-Martins; Nuno Neuparth; Antonio Rendas. A concept map template to be used by medical students for displaying pathophysiological mechanisms within clinical cases. MeEdPublish, 2020; 9(1):1-6.
• Marta Fonseca, Beatriz Oliveira, Pedro Martins, Nuno Neuparth, António B. Rendas. A score methodology to assess concept maps in medical education in the context of pathophysiology teaching. 6th International Conference on Higher Education Advances (HEAd’20), Universitat Politècnica de València, València, 2020: 867-874.
• Fonseca M, Oliveira B, Carreiro-Martins P, Neuparth N, Rendas A. Revisiting the role of concept mapping in teaching and learning pathophysiology for medical students. Adv Physiol Educ. 2020;44(3):475-481. doi:10.1152/advan.00020.2020

Teaching method

Each block is organized in lectures (b-learning, asynchronous recorded pptx and some synchronous zoom sessions via zoom) and tutorial sessions (e-learning, synchronous sessions by zoom and face- to-face in small groups (<8) and its objective is to promote the learning of the pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases. During the tutorial sessions, students will use short clinical cases, from where conceptual maps will be constructed and analysed (see complementary information “Organização das sessões tutoriais”).
The methodology of constructing and analysing conceptual maps, in the pathophysiology context, corresponds to the visual explicitness of previously acquired and of new knowledge and to its application in the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms. This methodology contributes to a meaningful learning and its application to short clinical cases.

Evaluation method


Subject matter

An introduction to the conceptual study of pathophysiology: from syndrome to diseasome. The use on conceptual maps in teaching and learning of pathophysiology. Pathophysiological mechanisms of fever. Physiologic adaptations in ageing. Pathophysiology of digestive motility disorders and of gastro-esophageal reflux. Pathophysiology of disorders of liver and pancreatic function. Pathophysiology of malabsorption syndrome. Methods for functional evaluation of the digestive system. Pathophysiology of mechanics of ventilation. Obstructive and restrictive syndromes. Asthma and COPD. Breathing control disorders. Hypoxia mechanisms. Pathophysiology of respiratory failure. Methods for evaluation of respiratory function. Pathophysiology of anemic syndrome (acute/chronic). Pathophysiology of disorders of blood pressure regulation. Causes and mechanisms of hypertension. Pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction. Pathophysiology of heart failure. Pathophysiology of circulatory shock. Methods for morpho- functional evaluation of the heart. Pathophysiology of electrolyte and acid-base balance disorders. Pathophysiology of glomerular and tubular disorders. Pathophysiology of chronic renal failure. Pathophysiology of acute renal failure. Pathophysiology of hypothalamic-hypophyseal disorders. Pathophysiology of adrenal disorders. Pathophysiology of thyroid gland disorders. Adaptation to tropical environment in health and disease. Cardio-respiratory adaptations to physical activity: from physiology to pathophysiology. Pathophysiology of diseases related with smoking and air pollution. Pathophysiology of diseases related with altitude and depth. Pathophysiology of obesity. Precision medicine: treatable traces and etiology of non-communicable diseases. The relevance of the biological concept of stress in pathophysiology.


Programs where the course is taught: