The students will be exposed to concepts, models and methodologies of Evolutionary Biology with particular relevance to the research that is done in each specific field and its relevance to the problems of Medicine. Are objectives of this course that students acquire the basic concepts of Evolutionary Biology and develop the ability to apply them to the problems of Medicine and Public Health. In particular, it is expected that the students learn how to identify processes of somatic evolution that occur within the lifespan of an organism as well as evolutionary processes that act on the germinal line and can modulate the genetic composition of human populations. Finally, it is also aimed that the students develop a critical thinking of the scientific literature in Evolutionary Medicine.
Prof.ª Doutora Patrícia Brito
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Livro de apoio principal: Evolutionary Medicine, 2016, Stearns, S. and Medzhitov, R, Sinauer Ass. Para todas as aulas existirá um conjunto de leituras obrigatórias assim como leituras facultativas que visam desenvolver os conhecimentos sobre os temas abordados. Alguns exemplos de leituras obrigatórias:
Alcock J, Schwartz MD. 2011. A clinical perspective in evolutionary medicine: what we wish we had learned in medical school. Evo Edu Outreach:16.
Nesse RM, Bergstrom CT, Ellison PT, et al. 2010. Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:18001807.
Naxerova, K and Jain, RK. 2015. Using tumour phylogenetics to identify the roots of metastasis in humans. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 12(5):258-72.
Greaves M, and Maley CC. 2012. Clonal evolution in cancer. Nature. 481(7381):306-13
Okin D, Medzhitov R.2012. Evolution of inflammatory diseases. Curr Biol.22(17):R733-40.
Bach JF. 2002. The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. N Engl J Med.347(12):911-20.
Andersen S.B., Shapiro BJ, Vandenbroucke-Grauls C., de Vos MGJ. 2019. Microbial evolutionary medicine: from theory to clinical practice. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 19 (8): PE273-E283.
The classes start with a theoretical exposition of the main concepts in evolutionary theory and their application to the problems of Medicine. It will follow a discussion where the students are expected to integrate what was taught with the readings done before class. Whenever possible we will discuss current research in the field of Evolutionary Medicine.
Assessment throughout the semester with one final project presentation. Students projects will consist of a critical assessment of a scientific work on Evolutionary Medicine. Students will be evaluated on a 12-min presentation and a 5000 character abstract. Projects are due on the last class of the semester. Projects will account for 80% of the final grade. The remaining 20% correspond to preparation, attendance, and participation in class. Attendance of at least 2/3 of the classes is mandatory.
INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTIONARY MEDICINE.
Scientific reasoning in Evolution. Mutation, genetic drift, natural selection and adaptation. Phylogenetic methods and evolutionary analysis of the dynamics of viral diseases.
EVOLUTIONARY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PATIENT.
Human evolutionary history. Adaptation, evolutionary tradeoffs and phylogenetic constraints in the human species. Somatic evolution and somatic mosaicism medical implications.
EVOLUTIONARY CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DISEASE.
Mechanisms of homeostasis, maintenance and defense. Evolutionary theories on aging and longevity.
EVOLUTION AND CANCER.
Clonal evolution in cancer and phylogenetic inference of cancer lines.
PATHOGEN EVOLUTION, EVOLUTION IN THE CONTEXT OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES.
The human microbiota; symbionts vs. pathogens; Evolution of virulence. The human microbiota and the development of pathologies. Evolution of antibiotic resistance, and evolutionarily robust therapeutic strategies.
Programs where the course is taught: