Human and Genetic Toxology


• Toxicology aims to study the biological and biochemical effects resulting from exposure to xenobiotics. The interest and scope of toxicology continues to grow rapidly and it is of profound importance to human health. Human populations are now exposed to more than 100 000 xenobiotics daily, including drugs, pesticides, environmental pollutants, chemical industrial products, food additives and potentially toxic food agents (e.g. aflatoxins, pyrolysis products and food processing products and food contaminants), which have impact in many aspects of human health. Therefore the goal of this C.U. is to provide the student an integrated and in-depth view of the toxic effects of some of these xenobiotics.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Prof. Doutor Sebastião Rodrigues


Weekly - Available soon

Total - Available soon

Teaching language





Bibliografia para a Toxicologia Geral e Genética:
Casarett & Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition, Curtis D. Klaasen, Ed.
Timbrell, J. (2008). Principles of biochemical toxicology. 4th Ed. CRC Press.
Artigos originais e de revisão recentes publicados em revistas especializadas (p.ex., Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

Bases de Dados de Toxicologia  (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)) US EPA Integrated Risk Assessment System International Agency for Research on Cancer Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations

Teaching method

Lectures (2H);

Evaluation method

The evaluation will comprise a final exam and a group seminar. Minimum grade within the criteria of Regulation NMS / FCM on assessment, Article 4; paragraph 3:
(=9,49 = 9; =9,50 = 10)


Written Exam (EE) = 60% final classification
Without consultation. Questions with multiple choice questions, assay and problem solving.
Written Exam is subject to grade improvement.

Seminar (S) = 40% final classification
Seminar (S): Presentation / discussion (15 minutes / 5 minutes) of topics for groups of 3-4 students.

Evaluation Criteria (S):
• Critical analysis
• Capacity of Synthesis
• Bibliographic search
• Time Compliance

Admission to Seminary requires:
• Reception of a presentation summary (maximum 250 words) 7 days before the date of the presentation.

The seminar is not subject to grade improvement.
The grade of the seminar can be carried over to the next year if the student has had approval =9,50 = 10

Final classification:
Calculated by the algorithm: 0.6 * EE + 0.4 * S  (EE and S =9,50 = 10 )

Subject matter

• Basic principles of toxicology; Dose-response curves; Major toxicological endpoints.
• Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of xenobiotics. Bioaccumulation and bioamplification.
• Membrane transporters and response to xenobiotics.
• Mechanisms of toxicity. Drug overdose and toxic effects. Target organ toxicity.
• Exposure and toxic effects of food, environmental and industrial xenobiotics.
• Toxicogenomics and Toxicogenetics. Harmful effects of xenobiotics on DNA.
• Genetic Toxicology and Cancer. Irreversible toxic effects and its concept. The mutagen-carcinogen-teratogen triad. Threshold and no threshold for carcinogens.
• Acute, sub-chronic and chronic toxicity tests. NOAEL, LOAEL, ADI.
• Hazard and risk concepts. Risk assessment and risk management
• Regulation. Risk phrases of Directive 2001/59 / EC: analysis of context and protective measures and clinical performance.


Programs where the course is taught: