1. Gain a general view of the problems debated in contemporary epistemology.
2. Relate the problems of knowledge to current epistemology.
3. Understand the fundamental questions of the relationship between philosophy and the various sciences.


General characterization





Responsible teacher

Nuno Carlos da Silva Carvalho Costa Venturinha


Weekly - 4

Total - 168

Teaching language





KANT, I. (1911) Kritik der reinen Vernunft: Kant‘s gesammelte Schriften, vol. 3. Berlim: Georg Reimer; (1985) Crítica da Razão Pura. Lisboa: FCG. [Pt. II, Cap. II, Sec. III]
– (1923) Logik: Kant‘s gesammelte Schriften, vol. 9, 1-150. Berlim: De Gruyter; (2009) Lógica. Lisboa: Texto & Grafia. [Int., Caps. IX-X]
RUSSELL, B. (1912) The Problems of Philosophy. Londres: Williams & Norgate; (2008) Os Problemas da Filosofia. Lisboa: Edições 70. [Cap. V]
SOSA, E., KIM, J., FANTL, J., McGRATH, M., eds. (2008) Epistemology: An Anthology, 2.ª ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
WITTGENSTEIN, L. (1984) Philosophische Untersuchungen: Werkausgabe, vol. 1, 225-580. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp; (1987) Investigações Filosóficas. In Tratado Lógico-Filosófico e Investigações Filosóficas, 159-611. Lisboa: FCG. [§§466-490]
– (1984) Über Gewissheit: Werkausgabe, vol. 8, 113-257. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp; (1990) Da Certeza. Lisboa: Edições 70. [§§66-192, 340-359]

Informação bibliográfica adicional será fornecida no início do curso.

Teaching method

The teaching method adopted for the class combines exposition of the readings and commentaries on them along with discussion of student papers.

Evaluation method

Evaluation Methodologies - each student is required to write an essay that summarizes the themes running through the second part of the course(30%), prepare a review of a contemporary article or book chapter, to be chosen from a list of papers selected by the teacher, that will be presented and discussed in class(20%), written exam devoted to the first part of the course(50%)

Subject matter

An Introduction to Epistemology

1 Foundations of Contemporary Epistemology
1.1 Kant’s metaepistemology
1.2 Russell and the origins of analytic epistemology
1.3 Wittgenstein at the crossroads between the logical positivism of the Vienna Circle and Moore’s common sense realism
2 Main Trends in Contemporary Epistemology
2.1 Gettier paradoxes and the inadequacy of the standard definition of knowledge as justified true belief: internalism vs. externalism
2.2 The naturalization of epistemology proposed by Quine: rejecting a justification-centred epistemology
2.3 Dretske and the relevant alternatives theory: its impact on Goldman’s reliabilist theory of justification
2.4 Epistemic contextualism: DeRose, fallibilism and the solution to scepticism
2.5 Neither fallibilism nor scepticism: Lewis’ infallibilist conception of knowledge
2.6 Virtue epistemology: cognitive ability from Sosa to Pritchard
2.7 Believing and knowing: Williamson’s knowledge-first epistemology


Programs where the course is taught: