History of Fascisms


- To introduce students to the critical knowledge of both the “fascist era” and the historical period between the two world wars, analysing the political, social and economic context since the end of the 19th century;
- To study the concept of "crisis of liberalism".
- To analyse fascism as a product of a specific historical process that explains the characteristics of the fascist movements and also their differences from the fascist regimes. The latter will be studied in a comparative manner.
- To examine the process of crisis and the downfall of the fascist regimes in the World War II context.
- To analyse primary sources or papers that are linked with the course’s theme,
- To encourage class debate.


General characterization





Responsible teacher

Maria Alice Dias de Albergaria Samara


Weekly - Available soon

Total - 168

Teaching language





FELICE, R. de (2005). Breve História do Fascismo, Lisboa: Casa das Letras.
FREI, N. (2004). O Estado de Hitler, Lisboa: Casa das Letras.
HOBSBAWM, E. (1996). A Era dos Extremos. Historia breve do século XX (1914-1991), Lisboa: Ed. Presença.
LUCENA, M. (1976). A evolução do sistema corporativo português, I – O salazarismo, Lisboa, Ed. Perspectivas e Realidades.
PAYNE, S. G (1995). A History of Fascism (1914-1945), Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.
PINTO, A. C. (1992). O salazarismo e o fascismo europeu, Lisboa: Estampa.
PRESTON, P. (1997). La Política de la Venganza. El fascismo y el militarismo en la España del siglo XX, Barcelona: Peninsula.
ROSAS, F. (2012). Salazar e o Poder. A Arte de Saber Durar, Lisboa: Tinta da China.
WOODLEY, D. (2010). Fascism and Political Theory. Critical perspectives on fascist ideology, Londres, Routledge.
TORGAL, L. R. (2009). Estados Novos, Estado Novo, Vols I e II, Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade de Coimbra.


Teaching method

50% of theoretical classes and 50% of practical classes.
Theoretical classes: lecture (with adequate resources, mainly written and iconographic documentation), Q&A period at the end of the lecture;
Practical classes: discussion of primary sources and texts selected by teachers; viewing and discussion of films; oriented debates.




Evaluation method

Evaluation Method - Essay (theme previously discussed with the teachers)(70%), In class participation(10%), Open book exam(20%)

Subject matter

Having the end of the 19th century crisis of liberal systems as a starting point, this course will study, with a comparative approach, the different fascist movements and fascist regimes in 20th century Europe. This analysis will take into account the ideological origins, the different process of seizing power and the final defeat in the context of World War II.
Besides the diachronical approach, fascism will be analysed as both a movement/ideology and as a political regime, after the seizure of power. The cases in point will be fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, but other regimes will be examined as well, namely the Portuguese New State.
Lastly, World War II and its impact will be studied in relation to the downfall of these regimes.



Programs where the course is taught: