Introduction to Electronics


This course is aimed at explaining the basic operation of electronic components such as transistors and diodes in simple simple electric circuits. It is intended that students learn the electrical characteristics of these components as well as learn the sizing of simple electronic circuits. The study of operational amplifiers and circuits with operational amplifiers, is also considered.

The student will develop the ability to solve problems, work in a team and autonomously. The student also learns to improve their ability to manage time available. Attention is given to the ability of written and oral presentation of the work performed.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Rui Manuel Leitão Santos Tavares


Weekly - 4

Total - 56

Teaching language



It is only required to have the motivation to learn how to analyze electrical and electronic circuits.


Manuel de Medeiros Silva, “Introdução aos Circuitos Eléctricos e Electrónicos”, Editado pela Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.

Manuel de Medeiros Silva, “Circuitos com Transistores Bipolares e MOS”, Editado pela Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian.

Sedra e Smith, "Microelectronic Circuits", Oxford University Press

Teaching method

The theoretical concepts of the course syllabus are explained in the theoretical-practical classes and then the application of these concepts is clarified through exercises and practical examples of circuits.

Resolution of sets of problems, available in the web page of the course, before the classes. Laboratorial classes with preparation in advance and report done by the students. Final project.

Continuous assessment in practical classes, laboratory work with writing report, three tests or final exam.

Evaluation method

Final grade (FG) is computed by:

FG = 0.6*T + 0.4*P

Subject matter

1 - Definitions and Basics

a) Variables electricity networks;

b) Kirchhoff''''''''''''''''s Laws;

c) Elements in series and parallel;

d) Voltage divider and current divider;

e) The superposition theorem, Thevenin and Norton.

f) Nodes and Meshes Methods 

2 - Junction diodes

a) rectifier;

b) voltage regulator;

c) limiting and voltage clamp;

3 - Bipolar Junction Transistors

a) areas of operation;

b) meshes polarization;

c) incremental model;

d) amplification stages (common-base, common-emitter and common-collector) and differential pairs;

4 - Operational Amplifiers (Ampops)

a) ideal and non-ideal characteristics;

c) Basic circuits;

5 - Sensors


Programs where the course is taught: