Propagation and Radiation (Electromagnetics)


The course aims at providing the students with basic on the “Electromagnetics” scientific area.



Learning about

  • Related mathematical concepts
  • Related physical concepts
  • Resolution of application problems
  • Time managing learning and study quality

General characterization





Responsible teacher

João Francisco Martinho Lêdo Guerreiro, Paulo da Costa Luís da Fonseca Pinto


Weekly - 7

Total - 170

Teaching language



De student needs knowledge about:

- Vectorial calculus

- Complex variable

- Integral calculus


Maria João Martins, Isabel Ventim Neves, “Propagação e Radiação de Ondas Eletromagnéticas”, 2ª edição, 2018, LIDEL

M. de Abreu Faro, "Propagação Guiada, Técnica AEIST, 1984

M. de Abreu Faro, "Radiação, Técnica AEIST, 1980

R.E. Collin, "Antennas and Radiowave Propagation", MacGraw-Hill, 1999

Teaching method

The program of the Propagation and Radiation curricular unit is divided into two parts, in the first part, the focus is on wave propagation and in the second part radiation is studied. It should be noted that this program is taught using three types of classes: theoretical classes, practical classes and laboratory sessions. 

Evaluation method

Evaluation method

a) If it is possible to do laboratory sessions:

·       The assessment has a theoretical component and a practical component. The theoretical component is worth 80% of the final mark and the practical component is worth 20% of the final mark.    

·       The pass mark is obtained with a minimum of 9.5 in both the theoretical and practical parts.

b) If it is not possible to carry out laboratory sessions:

·       The assessment will have only a theoretical component, which will count 100% of the final grade.

If a student passes either the laboratory or the theoretical part, that grade will be frozen for two school years. If they do not pass, they will have to take that part of the course again.

Theoretical component

i) The theoretical component is done through two tests of equal weight performed during the semester or by a final exam.  For both the tests and the exam, students are allowed to bring an A4 sheet of paper with any notes/formulas they want.

ii) The tests/exams will be face-to-face, except for students with special covid status, who may take the tests/exams online. Online assessments have different questions and lengths than the corresponding face-to-face version. Online assessment grades above 17 must be defended in an oral examination.

Practical component

The practical component will be based on the execution of two laboratory sessions. Each laboratory session will have an associated report. The evaluation will be based on the grade of the report and also based on the student''s performance during the lab session.

Frozen lab marks from the last 3 years can be used.

Subject matter

Wave concept, fase and fase velocity. Differential and integral forms of Maxwell equations, and physical interpretation. Wave popagation in free space and in bounded media: Snell laws, total reflection and power transfer. Guided wave boundary conditions, modal propagation and cuttoff. Rectangular waveguides, transmission lines and optical miltimode fibres. Vector ans scalar potencials, and the far radiated field properties. Duality of Maxwell equations. Radiation from very small structures: current element and elementar aperture. Fundamental concepts related to emitting and receiving antennas and radiated field. Standing wave linear antennas: radiation diagrams, self and mutual impedances. Antena array fundamentals, and antenna facing the gound application: radiation diagrams and gain calculation. Aperture antennas: electromagnetic horns.


Programs where the course is taught: