Surface Analysis


The aim of this curricular unit is to familiarize students with techniques based on X-ray or charged particles used for surface characterization and available in the Department of Physics such as electron spectroscopy and secondary ion
mass spectrometry. They are expected to integrate knowledge by understanding for example the application of the photoelectric effect or
the Auger effect for analytical purposes and by studying the application of vacuum and charged particles technology for that purpose. In this way, students are expected to be prepared to perform tasks related to analytical equipment
that uses charged particles and related instrumentation.
Students will also learn about the interaction of particles in solids and the differences between surface and material analysis. Students should also acquire transversal skills such as the development of scientific reasoning, knowledge integration
and practical application of physical concepts.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Ana Cristina Gomes da Silva, Orlando Manuel Neves Duarte Teodoro


Weekly - 2

Total - 28

Teaching language



Solid state Physics

Vacuum Technology

Charged particles optics


Quantum mechanics


Surface Science,

K.Oura, ..M. Katayama,


ISBN  3-540-00545-5


Surface and Thin Film Analysis

Gernot Friedbacher (Editor), Henning Bubert (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-32047-9

April 2011

Teaching method

The program will presented around each technique, describing the physical underline principles and the required instrumentation. This will be supported by theoretical calsses and laboratory sessions (XPS).

Evaluation method

Attend and participate in the  laboratotey session.

Middle  term written exam   (E) 70%

Trabalho:  (de laboratório em grupo 20% + Exercício individual 10%) = 30%

report (group) and work (individual)   (W) 30%

Approval if   (E) +   (W) > or equal to 10 (0-20).

If not succeded: a final written exam 

Improving of the final score: only upon registration via CLIP.

Subject matter

Surface analysis versus materials analysis.
2- The electron microscope (SEM and TEM). Microanalysis and high pressure SEM.
3- Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS).
4- Scanning Auger Microscopy (SAM and AES).
5- X-ray photoelectron spetroscopy (XPS).


Programs where the course is taught: