Analytical Chemistry


The main goal of this curricular unit is to provide the fundamental theoretical scientific background as well as the practical training in the field of Analytical Chemistry and to be able to accomplish the experimental work and solve the proposed problems.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Jorge Manuel Pinto Lampreia Pereira, Maria Cristina Oliveira Costa


Weekly - 4

Total - 69

Teaching language



No mandatory requisites, but it is advisable that the student get previous approval in Introduction to Physical Chemistry or General Chemistry.


Métodos Instrumentais para Análise de Soluções    
Mª de Lurdes Gonçalves, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa

Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry (9th ed),
S. Crouch, D. M. West, D. A. Skoog,  and F. J. Holler, Saunders College Publishing (2013) ISBN-10: 1285056248

Aqueous Acid-Base Equilibria and Titrations
R. Levie, Oxford University Press (1999) ISBN-10: 0198506171

Analytical Chemistry
Robert V. Dilts, D. Van Nostrand, (1974) ISBN 10 - 0442221584

Analytical Chemistry
G. D. Christian, Wiley, 6th Edition (2003) ISBN 10 - 0471214728

Quantitative Chemical Analysis
Daniel C. Harris, Freeman, New York, 8th Edition (2010) ISBN 10 – 1429239891

Teaching method

Lectures  and problem-solving sessions, supported by data show projection of figures/plots/text included either in the documentation supplied directly by the teacher or in the recommended bibliography.

Evaluation method

In order to get frequency the student have to attend all 5 laboratory sessions (with previous preparation) and to submit the proposed questionnaire at the end of each practical session.

Subject matter

I. Theoretical syllabus

  1. Solutions. Concentrations. Review on the concept of mole and equivalent.
  2. Electrical conductivity. Strong electrolyte and weak electrolyte. Equivalent conductance. Ostwald dilution law. Ionic interaction. Kohlraush´s law of independent migration of ions. Aplication of conductimetric measurements: Conductimetric acid-base titrations.
  3. Acid-base equilibrium. Calculation of pH in solution: Strong acid, Weak acid, Conjugate base, Mixture of weak acid and its conjugate base, Buffer solution. Calculation of pH in an acid base titration: Strong acid versus strong base, Weak acid versus strong base and Mixture of strong acid and weak acid versus strong base.Calculation of pH in solution: Polyprotic acids Buffer solutions with polyprotic acids and Amphiprotic solution.Titration of a polyprotic acid versus strong base (no calculations). Acid base indicators.
  4. Complexometric equilibrium. Complexometric titrations. Monodentate and multidentate ligands . Calculation of pM in a complexometric titration. Effect of pH and the other metals and other ligands in the formation constant. Concept of α--M e α--L and conditional formation constant. Complexometric titration when there is other metals and other ligands. Calculation of pM in the complexometric titration. Consecutive complexometric titrations. Masking. Detection of the end point of titration. Metal ion indicators.
  5. Redox equilibrium. Redox titration. Calculation of redox potential in titration of Fe2+/ Ce4+. Calculation of redox potential in titration of Fe3+/ MnO4-. Calculation of redox potential in titration of a mixture. Redox indicators. Effect on the redox potential: complexes and pH. Diagram redox potential versus pH. Redox behaviour of water.
  6. Precipitation. Solubility product (Ks). Solubility and minimun of solubility. Diferencial solubility. Quantitatives methods: Mohr method and Volhard method.

II. Laboratory Sessions

  1. Conductimetric studies of strong and weak electrolytes.
  2. Acid-Base titrations – Conductimetric and potentiometric methods.
  3. Complexometric analysis of the components of an indutsrial cement.
  4. Effect of complexes in the redox pair Fe(II) / Fe (III)
  5. Solubility of silver acetate