This course aims to provide students of the Master of Law and Security with the main concepts associated with cybersecurity, in the fields of sociology and legal sciences. It also aims to equip students with state-of-the-art public policies on cybersecurity in the European and national context and to frame cybersecurity in the broad concept of national security.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Armando Manuel de Barros Serra Marques Guedes


Weekly - 3

Total - Available soon

Teaching language



Available soon


  • General Data Protection Regulation (2018), ¿2018 EU revision of data protection rules¿, in

- Bacelar Gouveia, J. (2018), Direito da Segurança - Cidadania, Soberania e Cosmopolitismo, Almedina.

  • Clarke, R. A. & Knake, R. K. (2011). Cyber war. HarperCollins.
  • Demchak, C. C. & Dombrowski, P. (2011). Rise of a cybered westphalian age. Strategic Studies, 5(1), 32-61.
  • Denning, D. E. R. (1999). Information warfare and security. Reading MA: Addison¿ ¿Wesley.
  • Gozzi Jr, R. (1994). The cyberspace metaphor. Etc.: A Review of General Semantics, 51(2), 218.
  • Klimburg, A. (2011). Mobilising cyber power. Survival, 53(1), 41-60.
  • Libicki, M. C. (2012). Cyberspace is not a warfghting domain. ISJLP, 8, 321-336.
  • Luiijf, E., Besseling, K., & De Graaf, P. (2013). Nineteen national cyber security strategies. International journal of critical infrastructures, 9(1), 3¿31.
  • Marques Guedes, A. (2007). Ligações Perigosas. Conectividade, Coordenação e Aprendizagem em Redes Terroristas, Almedina, Coimbra [reviewed by Major-General J.M. Freire Nogueira, Segurança e Defesa 7].
  • Marques Guedes, A. (2009). As ¿redes sociais¿ digitais, a participação ¿política¿ e a segurança, Pessoas e Territórios, 2: 44-45, Governo Civil de Lisboa 
  • Marques Guedes, A. (2010). Geopolitica del Ciberspazio, Quaderni Speciali di Limes. Rivista Italiana di Geopolitica: 187-199, Roma.
  • Marques Guedes, A. (2010). The new geopolitical coordinates of cyberspace, Revista Militar, 2503/2504: 825-849, Lisboa.

- Marques Guedes, A. (2017). ¿Em rede. Os cabos de fibras ópticas submarinas e a centralidade portuguesa crescent num autêntico mar de conectividades¿, in Revista de Marinha, special no. 1000, pp. 20-27, Lisboa.

- Marques Guedes, A. (2018). Valor estratégico e económico dos cabos submarinos¿, in Jornal da Economia do Mar, 19, no. especial de aniversário, pp. 9-12.

  • Morozov, E. (2012). The net delusion: The dark side of Internet freedom. PublicAffairs.
  • Nye Jr, J. S. (2010). Cyber power. Technical report, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School.
  • O'Connell, M. E. (2012). Cyber security without cyber war. Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 17(2), 187-209.
  • Rid, T. (2013). Cyber war will not take place. Oxford University Press, USA.

- Santos, L. e Armando Marques Guedes (2016), ¿Breves Reflexões sobre o Poder e o Ciberespaço¿, com Lino Santos, Revista de Direito e Segurança, no. 6, pp. 189-210.

  • Santos, L. (2012). Contributos para uma Melhor Governação da Cibersegurança em Portugal. In J. Bacelar Gouveia (ed.), Estudos Avançados de Direito e Segurança (Vol. II, pp. 217¿305). Almedina.
  • Schmitt, M. (1999). Computer network attack and the use of force in international law: thoughts on a normative framework. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 37, 887-937.
  • Schmitt, M. N. (2013). Tallinn manual on the international law applicable to cyber warfare. Cambridge University Press.
  • Shirky, C. (2008). Here comes everybody: The power of organizing without organizations. Penguin.
  • Strate, L. (1999). The varieties of cyberspace: Problems in definition and delimitation. Western Journal of Communication, 63(3), 382¿412.
  • Subramnian, Samantha (2017). Inside the Macedonian Fake-News Complex. Wired, disponível em
  • Van De Velde, Jacqueline (2017). The Law of Cyber Interference in Elections. Disponível em
  • West-Brown, M. J. et al. (2003) Handbook for Computer Security Teams (CSIRTs), CMU.

Teaching method

The program is narrative. It has five parts that follow the logic of the program title: CYBERSECURITY. Its teaching methodologies, as befits the faculty's DNA, are interactive theoretical-practical classes that involve student participation. In some cases, students may decide to give presentations on the topic of the session, in which case the interaction becomes thicker and more multicenter.

Evaluation method


Final exam, or paper. The paper, if this is the choice of the students, must be from 15 to 25 pages, and must follow the editorial norms of any of NOVA School of Law's scientific journals.

Subject matter

The confrontation of the objectives with the described contents demonstrates the full coherence that exists between them. The articulation is made in several planes and is always present, although some objectives relate more directly to some contents. Thus, for example, the first and second topics of the program aim to provide conceptual grounding through the sociological and legal reflection of cybersecurity as well as its typologies, corresponding to the first objective. The third, fourth and fifth topics correspond to the second and third objectives, by demonstrating the political context, legal framework and public policies related to cybersecurity, within the broader conception of security.


Programs where the course is taught: