After this unit, students should be able to:
1. Identify the structure of the immune system (IS) and recognize the importance of immune homeostasis.
2. Understand the interactions established between pathogens and the different elements of IS.
3. Identify the most appropriate parameters for the evaluation of vaccines.
4. Identify the universe of application of different analytical methodologies applied to the study of the immune response.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Gabriela Santos-Gomes


Weekly - 6

Total - 39

Teaching language



Attendance of 2/3 of classes is mandatory


• Immunology. 2006. 7ª edição. Roitt I., Brostoff J., Male D. (Ed.), Mosby, London, 544 pg.
• The cytokine handbook. 2008. 3ª edição. Thomson A. Academic Press, London, 1017 pg.
Complimentary bibliography (strengthening and enhancing student learning) - Scientific papers.

Teaching method

1. Lectures.
2. Lab practical classes.
3. Tutorial support.

Evaluation method

The evaluation of learning outcomes will take into account the level of success achieved in the final examination.
Classification equal to or greater than 10, expressed on a scale of 0-20 values, determines the approval of the curricular unit.

Subject matter

Theoretical content:
I. Innate immune response of vertebrate host. The complement system. Polymorphonuclear cells, monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Chemotaxis. Oxidative stress and degranulation. Apoptosis. Antigen presenting cells. Major histocompatibility complex.
II. Acquired immune response of an infected host. B cells. Immunoglobulins. Lymphocyte activation. Helper (CD4+) and cytotoxic (CD8+) T cells. Co-stimulatory molecules. Cytokines and chemokines. Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune response.
III. Regulation of effector response. Differentiation and activation of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+). Th3 immune response. Immune homeostasis vs immune tolerance.
IV. Immune memory. Vaccines.
Applied content:
I. Contact with lab techniques used in the study of immune response.


Programs where the course is taught: