Learning outcomes of the curricular unit: The Archaeometry curricular unit aims to provide a strongly practical experience, in laboratory context, in the study and interpretation of metallic, ceramic, glass, petreous or related archaeological materials. It intends to give detailed knowledge for materials characterization of archaeological finds or structures, through the application of one or more analytical techniques and the treatment and discussion of data. It intends to enable answering questions related to endogenous or exogenous manufactures, use of local or imported raw materials, transfer of manufacturing technologies, trade networks of materials and products, dating and early innovation introductions. The student should apply knowledge acquired in the bachelor’s degree.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

João Pedro Botelho Veiga


Weekly - 3

Total - 280

Teaching language



Available soon


- Martinón-Torres, M., Rehren, T. (Ed.) (2009) Archaeology, History & Science. Walnut Creek, CA - Hauptmann, A. (Ed.) (2020). Archaeometallurgy – Materials Science Aspects. Springer. - Van Grieken, R., Janssens, K. (Eds.) (2005) Cultural Heritage Conservation and Environmental Impact Assessment by Non-Destructive Testing and MicroAnalysis, A.A. Balkema Publishers, Taylor and Francis. - Sgamellotti, A., Brunetti, B.G., Miliani, C. (Eds.) (2014) Science and Art. The Painted Surface, The Royal Society of Chemistry. - Janssens, K. (Ed.) (2013), Modern Methods for Analysing Archaeological and Historical Glass, John Wiley and Sons, 2013. - López Varela, S. L. (Ed.) (2018). The Encyclopedia of Archaeological Sciences. Wiley. - Publicações diversas: artigos em Atas de conferências e em revistas científicas da área (ex. Journal of Archaeological Science, Archaeometry; Journal of Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences). - Outros a definir pelo orientador de cada projecto específico.

Teaching method

Teaching and evaluation methodologies: The curricular unit is made in the context of seminar, where the essential theoretical contents are taught, along with the tutorial follow-up of the students in the chosen themes, to be developed in a practical context. It is intended that the students carry out a research work in the context of research projects developed within the University, with presence in the laboratories of excellence in the archeometric study of the various materials. The evaluation is made by the preparation of a report of the activities developed (50% of the final grade) and its presentation and oral discussion (50% of the final grade).

Evaluation method

Available soon

Subject matter

Syllabus follow-up directed to each theme chosen by the students. 1- Archaeometallurgy: studies of mining and provenance in antiquity; identification of slag and reduction processes; study of composition of copper, tin, lead, gold, silver and iron alloys; recognition and characterization of crucibles, moulds and operating chains of thermo-mechanical work. 2- Production and distribution of archaeological ceramics: characterization of the ceramic body and decorative techniques; minerochemistry and cooking temperatures; defining characters of provenance and pottery trade. 3- Glass: study and characteristic of glass and its chromophores; raw materials and production methodologies; technology and formal categories in various chronologies. 4- Building materials: chemical and mineralogical study of historical mortars; methods and constructive periods; stone/mortar interaction. The work will be carried out using elementary, microstructural, compositional, isotopic techniques (among others).


Programs where the course is taught: