Experimental Methods in Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy


Provide students with theoretical and practical knowledge of various spectroscopic techniques that can contribute to solve operational problems of their research; give them the skills associated with a doctorate degree, including systematic scientific understanding, research skills including critical analysis and assessment of concepts and results, project design and implementation, written and oral communication techniques.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

António Alberto Dias


Weekly - Available soon

Total - 80

Teaching language



It is recommended to have a basic course of Atomic and Molecular Physics or similar.


• Modern Spectroscopy 4th Ed. (Wiley), J.M. Hollas, 2004

• Molecular Spectroscopy, Jeanne L. McHale, CRC Press, 2017.

• Atomic and molecular spectroscopy: basic aspects and practical applications, S. Svanberg, Springer, 2004.

• Molecular Quantum Mechanics, 4th ed., P.W. Atkins, R. S. Friedman, Oxford University Press, 2005

• Atoms and Molecules, M. Weissbluth, Academic Press, 1978.

• Optical Spectroscopy: Methods and Instrumentations, Nikolai V. Tkachenko, Elsevier Science, 2006.

• Electronic and photoelectron spectroscopy - Fundamentals and case studies, Andrew M. Ellis, Miklos Feher, Timothy G. Wrigh, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

• Scientific articles to be specified during classes.

Teaching method

This curricular unit will work in weekly tutorial sessions and seminar proposals, to be presented throughout the semester.

Evaluation method

The final evaluation will be the average of the classifications obtained in the proposed and conducted seminar works.

Subject matter

General Concepts: Interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules; Spectroscopy and electromagnetic spectrum regions, type of associated transitions; Generic structure of an equipment; Radiation spectra and spectroscopic units.
Atomic Spectroscopy: Sample Atomization. Types and sources of atomic spectra. Factors influencing the atomic spectrum. Atomic absorption spectroscopy; radiation sources; atomic absorption spectrophotometers; spectral interference and its correction. Flame atomic emission spectroscopy: interference; self absorption and ionization in the flame. Atomic Fluorescence. Other atomic spectroscopies.
Molecular Spectroscopy: Microwave Spectroscopy; Infrared spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy. Basic instrumentation, characterization of the physical principles of operation and interpretation of the spectra. Other molecular spectroscopic techniques. Applications.
Electronic Spectroscopy: Electronic atom configuration; Angular momentum; Selection rules; Typical components of spectroscopic instruments; Synchrotron radiation; Spectral information; Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy; Constant ion state spectroscopy; X-ray spectroscopy; Absorption spectroscopy. Laser spectroscopy. Other methods of electronic spectroscopy. Applications.
Radio frequency spectroscopy: Physical fundamentals of nuclear magnetic resonance; Magnetization and nuclear spin; Resonance condition; Basic instrumentation and rmn applications.


Programs where the course is taught: