Physics II


At the end of this subject the student should have obtained knowledge, ability and competences in

-the physical processes and the Laws of Thermodynamics, in particular a) heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation b) phase transitions c) thermodynamic cycles for the study of heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators and the calculation of the respective efficiency when opperating with ideal gases in reversible processes d) entropy and its production in concrete processes e) thermodynamic potentials f) experimental study of some of these processes

General characterization





Responsible teacher

António Alberto Dias, Filipe Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva


Weekly - 4

Total - 69

Teaching language



Approval in the subjects

"Análise Matemática I"


"Física I" 

is recommended.


A: Engineering Thermodynamics; F. F. Huang

B: Fundamentals of Physics; Halliday/Resnick/Walker

C: Física (um curso universitário); Alonso e Finn ed. Brasileira, 1981, vol 1

D: Apontamentos de Termodinâmica

E: Physics; Kane & Sternheim

F: Physics; Paul Tipler and Gene Mosca

Teaching method

General information about the functioning of this course unit, such as rules, important dates, evaluation notes and other complementary information are available on the course''''''''s page in the clip. Documentation necessary for the realization of practical classes should be consulted in the CLIP in the folder “Protocols”. The program, program contents of the classes and the bibliography, are available on the page of the discipline in the clip.

The Physics II curricular unit is divided into a theoretical component (T); a problem solving component (TP); and in a practical part (P - Laboratory). Theoretical classes have a duration of 2.5 hours a week (1 h + 1:30 h) and problem classes have a duration of 1 h weekly. Laboratory classes have a workload of two hours, every two weeks.

T classes serve to introduce students to the structural content of this course, thermodynamics. In TP classes there will be a discussion and resolution of problems in applying the concepts exposed in the T. In the P, laboratory classes, experimental work is carried out with the aim of monitoring and verifying physical phenomena and processes described in the theoretical-practical classes and to develop skills in laboratory setup and experimentation. They also serve to introduce the handling of devices (multimeters, scales, thermometers, voltage sources, heat sources, etc ...).

Evaluation method

Article 1 - Theoretical Component - T
1. Active participation in class requires enrollment in a theoretical shift, T.
2. The assessment of this component is carried out through a knowledge test or exam.
3. The dates of the evaluation moments and the information on how to register for them can be found in the Clip.
4. Within the scope of continuous assessment, 2 tests will be carried out throughout the semester, whose classification is rounded to the nearest tenth.
5. The T component classification (CT) is the arithmetic mean, rounded to the nearest unit, of the marks obtained in the tests or the final exam classification.
6. Students who obtain a CT rating equal to or greater than 10 will pass the theoretical component.

Article 2 - Theoretical-Practical Component - TP
1. Theoretical-practical classes are mandatory for students without attendance.
2. In these classes, problems about the subject taught in the theoretical classes will be discussed and solved.
3. The series of problems and exercises proposed for all sessions will be published in the Clip at the beginning of the semester.

Article 3 - Practical Component - P
1. The practical classes are intended for all students who do not have attendance or for students with attendance obtained before the 2020-2021 academic year.

2. The practical classes last for two hours and will take place in alternate weeks, except for occasional situations.

3. In the first practical class of each shift, the following will be presented: a) the evaluation rules for this component will be presented in detail; b) confirmed in person the registration for the shift; c) the working groups were formed (1 or 2 students per group); d) a review was carried out on the analysis of results.

4. Students who do not satisfy paragraph 3.b) will have their enrollment in the practical shift cancelled.

5. Not attendance at the 1st laboratory demosntartion will have the enrollement cancelled.

6. Students filling numbers 4 and/or 5, will need to resgister for new schedule selection.

7. In practical classes, six laboratory works will be carried out.

8. The mini-report of each practical work is classified from 0 to 20 values. Absence from class or non-delivery of the mini-report is classified with zero values. For classification purposes, only the five best mini-reports will be considered and the arithmetic mean MR will be calculated from these.

9. Students with two or more mini-reports classified with zero values ​​do not pass the practical component.

10. There will be a practical test, TP, classified from 0 to 20 values, at the end of the semester, individual and without consultation, involving questions from all six planned works.

11. The classification of the practical component CP, rounded to the nearest integer, is: CP = 0.7xMR + 0.3xTP.

12. Students with a final classification in the practical component CP greater than or equal to ten values ​​obtain approval in the practical component.

Article 4 - Attendance
1. Students who participate in at least 2/3 of the TP classes and pass the P component, obtain frequency in this Curricular Unit (UC).
2. The attendance obtained in the past years is maintained. Students are often unable to register for practical shifts or TP shifts.
3. The list of students who obtained attendance in previous years will be on CLIP under "Support Documentation > Others, from the end of the first week of classes, and if there is no complaint to the email f.ferreiradasilva@fct.unl. en until 23 september 2022, it is considered definitive.

Article 5 - Approval
1. Students who frequently obtain a T grade greater than or equal to ten values ​​obtain approval in the UC.

Article 6 - Final Classification
1. The final classification (CF) is the result of the following expression approximated to unity:
FC = CT×0.7 + CP×0.3

Article 7 - Grade Improvement
1. Students who intend to improve their grade must comply, for this purpose, with the legal formalities of registration.
2. Students who obtain a final grade, by improvement, greater than 16 values ​​are subject to the conditions described in points 2, 3 and 4 of Article 6.

Article 8 - Conduct in Class
1. In order for everyone to benefit from the learning experience, students are required to respect the following in class:
The. Punctuality: Students must be present in the classroom at the start of class. Teachers will be able to prevent the entry of students who arrive more than 5 minutes late;
B. Classroom preparation and discussion participation: Active participation requires students to prepare material presented and discussed in class, and to contribute to discussions.

Article 9 - Tests and Examination
1. Each test will essentially cover all the subjects taught in Theoretical classes until the class before the test.
2. Although the assessment in the tests is not cumulative, and due to the nature of the subjects covered in this UC, it is not excluded that an assessment element relies on knowledge regarding the subject assessed in a previous element(s).
3. The timetable and rooms for the tests and exams will be published in CLIP, on the day of the test.
4. Students can only have with them during the assessment test:
A. Pen;
B. Identification document with photograph;
C. Scientific calculating machine, non-programmable and non-graphical.
5. During the tests, it is not allowed to consult any personal or other elements, beyond the form distributed with the test.
6. It is not allowed to unstaple the sheets of statements.
7. The race will be canceled if paragraphs 4, 5 or 6 are not satisfied.
8. Fraud situations, at any time of evaluation, will be treated as indicated in the regulation of knowledge evaluation of this Faculty.

Article 10 - Others
1. When contacting any teacher by electronic message, he must indicate in the “Subject” the following information: “Physics II - Name – Student No. – Subject”.
2. Questions whose answers are included in the Assessment Method or on this UC page on CLIP are not answered.

Subject matter

Thermodynamics (see details in portuguese)