Chemical and Biological Engineering Thermodynamics

Objectives

Understanding the basic concepts of thermodynamics (laws of thermodynamics and relationships between the macroscopic equilibrium properties of a system), with an emphasis on phase equilibrium and reaction equilibrium.

General characterization

Code

12587

Credits

6.0

Responsible teacher

Susana Filipe Barreiros

Hours

Weekly - 4

Total - 56

Teaching language

Português

Prerequisites

None.

Bibliography

1. Physical Chemistry, I. Levine, 6ª ed., McGraw-Hill, 2009.

2. Termodinâmica Aplicada, E. Gomes de Azevedo, 4ª ed., Escolar Editora, 2018.

3. Principles and Problems in Physical Chemistry for Biochemists, 3ª ed., N.C. Price, R. A. Dwek, M. Wormald, R.G. Ratcliffe, Oxford University Press, 2001.

4. Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences, 2ª ed., P. Atkins, J. de Paula, WH Freeman and Company, 2011.

Teaching method

All lectures combine the presentation of fundamental concepts with problem solving, a key element of any physical chemistry course involving a reasonable load of mathematics (kept as simple as possible).

Evaluation method

Students enrolled in the course for the first time

4, 1.5 h-midterms.

The midterms - prospective dates: weeks starting on 17th October, 14th November, 28th November, 12th December - will cover different topics mostly, although some of the topics dealt with at an earlier stage of the course will be readdressed later on, and articulated with new ones.

Each of the 4 midterms accounts for 25% of the final grade in the course.

On the day of the 4th midterm, students may improve the grade of one the three previous midterms. Alternatively they may make up for the loss of one of those three midterms, irrespective of the reason for missing the date scheduled beforehand. To that end, a room will be reserved for a period of 3 h so that, after handing in the 4th midterm, students who so wish may take the replacement midterm of their choice, or the missing midterm, during the following 1.5 h.

For a student to pass the course, the average of the 4 scores must be ≥ 9.5 points. Students who do not reach an average grade of 9.5 points can always take the final exam.

Attendance criteria: Students enrolled in the course for the first time must sit through a minimum of 2/3 of the sessions (a) and must do two assignments dealing with the application of a given software, in groups of two, in class (b). Each of these assignments is to be done in a specific session, whose date will be fixed at the beginning of the semester. Students with a valid justification for not being present in one, or in both, of those sessions will be able to do the assignment(s) during the last two sessions of the semester.

Students who attended this course in the academic year 2021-22 and fulfilled the criteria for attendance

They may take the same midterms as students enrolled in the course for the first time. Alternatively, they may choose to take the final exam only.

Students who attended this course in the academic year 2021-22 and did not fulfill the criteria for attendance, and students who attended the ‘Chemical Thermodynamics’ course earlier than 2021-22

They may take the same midterms as students enrolled in the course for the first time. Alternatively, they may choose to take the final exam only.

They must do the two assignments in class.

Subject matter

Thermodynamics os ideal gases. The second law of thermodynamics. The Carnot cycle. Entropy. Temperature scales. Helmholtz and Gibbs energies. Thermochemistry. Standard enthalpy and entropy. The third law of thermodynamics. Fundamental equations for a closed system in equilibrium. The Maxwell relations. The Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Extension of the Gibbs equations to processes involving exchange of matter with the surroundings or irreversible composition changes. The chemical potential. One component phase equilibrium. The phase rule. The Clapeyron equation. Chemical potential of ideal and real gases. Fugacity. Solutions. Partial molar quantities. The Gibbs-Duhem equation. Ideal solutions. Colligative properties. Ideally dilute solutions. Nonideal solutions. Activity and activity coefficient. Excess functions. Liquid-liquid and solid-liquid equilibrium. Reaction equilibrium. Debye-Hückel theory of electrolyte solutions.

Programs

Programs where the course is taught: