In this discipline will be introduced the concepts and formalisms and equations of Hemodynamics with examples of medical applications and the laboratory classes on Biopac equipment.

It is intended that at the end of the course, students demonstrate the bases for the understanding and application of key models used in Hemodynamics and resulting equations, particularly in the study of properties of blood vessels and fluid dynamics, as well as cardiac activity and description of the cardiovascular system. Students should be able to solve problems applying hemodynamic models, acquire the knowledge to use experimental equipment used in laboratory classes for the purpose of acquiring physiological signals and interpret them from the point of view of hemodynamic phenomena.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Valentina Borissovna Vassilenko


Weekly - 2

Total - 28

Teaching language



It is highly recommended that students have obtained positive rating in the disciplines of "Mathematical Analysis I and II", "Physics I", "Anatomy" and “Biomechanics”.


1. Lectures Notes on Biomechanics and Hemodynamics  - Valentina Vassilenko, FCT/UNL

2.B.H.Brown, et.al. Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering 

3. M.Zamir “The physics of pulsatile flow”, Springer-Verlag, 2000

4. Seeley, T.D.Stephens, P.Tate Anatomia e Fisiologia, Lusodidacta, 2001
5. www.fct.unl.pt à Biblioteca à e-Books à The Biomedical Engineering Handbook; Vol.1, 2nd Edition,Ed.J.D.Bronzino, CRC Press LLC, 2000
6. Biomechanical Systems: Techniques & Applications, Vol. II, Cardiovascular Techniques; Vol. IV, Biofluid Methods in Vascular & Pulmonary Systems 

7. Problems for Biomechanics and Hemodynamics  – Valentina Vassilenko, FCT/UNL
8. Protocols for Laboratory Lessons  – Valentina Vassilenko, FCT/UNL

Teaching method

Teaching consists of three components:

- Lectures (TEOR), where the fundamental concepts of the chair are transmitted, exemplified and discussed.

- The practical component (PRAT) that consists of performing of 3 laboratory sessions. This component provides learning of measurements of physiological signals of the human body by Biopac equipment, as well as analyse and interprets the results.

The PRAT is performed by groups of two students.

Each component is evaluated, with the weights indicated in the final grade:

TEOR - 70%

PRAT - 30%

Each of these elements of assessment is quoted to 20.

Evaluation method

Assessment components are the following and have the weights on the final grade that are shown:


• PRACTICAL (CP) - 30%

Each of these elements is graded up to 20 points. 


- The theoretical component grade (CT) is the grade of the Test or Exam;

- The practical component grade (CP), also called the Frequency Grade, is the arithmetic average of the grades of the 3 reports of the work carried out in the laboratory and delivered for evaluation.

The laboratory sessions  are carried out by groups of two students.

The frequency obtained in the current academic year will be valid in the coming years. It is not possible to improve the frequency grade obtained in the past.

Approval and Final Grade

Approval is determined by the following condition:

• CT> = 9.5 and CP> = 9.5

Intermediate grades are rounded to one decimal place.

The final grade is rounded up to an integer

Academic fraud

Any type of fraud in any component of the assessment causes the student to immediately fail to pass the course in the current academic year (even if there are exams scheduled). This applies both to those students who give information, as well as to who receives information.

Subject matter

1. Introduction to Hemodynamics

Hydrostatic pressure;

Cardiac activity and blood pressure;

Measurement of Blood Pressure

2. Properties of the Fluids. Rheology of Blood

Intrinsic properties of the fluids

Newtonian & Non-Newtonian fluids;

Rheology of Blood;

Casson’s model;

Fahraeus – Linquist effect.

3. Equations of Fluid Dynamics

Continuity equation;

Conservation of momentum and energy;

Navier- Stokes equation.

4. Models of Blood Circulation

Models of Poiseulle;

Resistive model;

Propagating pulsed flow

Model of Frank

5.Branching tubes


Cube Law.


Laboratory sessions:

1.Blood Pressure Measurements

2.Pulse and Pressure

3.Heart Sounds


Programs where the course is taught: