Hydraulics II


Hydraulics II curricular unit prepares students for civil engineering careers in the fields of planning, design, construction and management of water and wastewater systems as well as in the field of hydraulic structures for dams, irrigation schemes and drainage works.

Hydraulic II curricular unit covers concepts, methods and principles that provide a solid background in hydraulics and aim to allow a theoretical and practical approach to real-world problems and issues focusing in pipelines unsteady flows, open-channel flows, weirs and spillways and flows in porous media.

 In particular, it is intended that the student acquires the following competencies: i) to characterize conditions of variable flow rates under pressure; ii) to characterize flow conditions in porous media; iii) calculate the flow in orifices and over weirs and to design discharge for several types of civil engineering works; and (iv) determine the flow conditions in mixed and composite channels as well as regulfs in prismatic and non-prismatic channels for constant flow 

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Maria da Graça Reis e Silva de Oliveira Neves


Weekly - 3

Total - 70

Teaching language



The requirements of this curricular unit are the mandatory assistance of practical classes

Students will have the opportunity to consolidate some of the subjects treated in theoretical  classes through exercíses.


1. Lencastre, A. (1983). “General Hydraulics (in portuguese)”, Hidroprojecto, Lisboa.

2. Manzanares A. (1980). “General Hydraulics (in portuguese)”, TÉCNICA, A.E.I.S.T., Lisboa.

3. Quintela, A. (1998). “Hidráulics (in portuguese)”, 6ª edição. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa.

4. Chow, V.T. (1959). “Open Channel Hydraulics”, McGraw-Hill.

5. Evett, J.B., Liu, C. (1988). "2500 solved problems in Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics", McGraw-Hill.

6. Chaudhry, M. H. (1993). “Open Channel Flow”. Prentice Hall.

Teaching method

Theoretical and practical lectures.

Evaluation method

The evaluation of this Curricular Unit will be carried out through the performance of two tests concerning Theoretical and Practical subjects. Each tests will have a duration of 2.0h and the final classification will be the average of both tests classifications.

There will also be a 2.5 hours Appeal Exam for students who have not passed the tests or wish to improve their ranking.

Each of these exams will be classified from 0 to 20 values.

Subject matter

1. Unsteady pressurized flow. Water hammer, surge waves and mass oscillation

2. Flow discharge through orifices and weirs. Application to spillways

3. Flows through porous media. Darcy law. Main equation that governs flow in aquifers and wells

4. Open channel flows within channels, sewers and rivers. Steady uniform flow: Chezy and Manning equations, optimal trapezoidal section, compound and mixed open channels, normal depth calculation in channels and sewers. Gradually varied flows: specific energy, critical depth, critical slope. Backwater curves for constant and space varied flow discharge in prismatic and non-prismatic open channels. Rapidly varied flow: hydraulic jump.


Programs where the course is taught: