At the end of this subject the student should have obtained knowledge, ability and competences in

-the physical processes and the Laws of Thermodynamics, in particular a) heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation b) phase transitions c) thermodynamic cycles for the study of heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators and the calculation of the respective efficiency when opperating with ideal gases in reversible processes d) entropy and its production in concrete processes e) thermodynamic potentials f) experimental study of some of these processes

General characterization





Responsible teacher

António Alberto Dias


Weekly - 5

Total - 85

Teaching language



Approval in the subjects

"Análise Matemática I"



is recommended.


A: Engineering Thermodynamics; F. F. Huang

B: Fundamentals of Physics; Halliday/Resnick/Walker

C: Física (um curso universitário); Alonso e Finn ed. Brasileira, 1981, vol 1

D: Sebenta Fis II em Documentação de Apoio – Acetatos

E: Physics; Kane & Sternheim

F: Physics; Paul Tipler and Gene Mosca


Teaching method

The information on the  functioning of the subject will be available in CLIP, either in "Avisos"  or in the folders  "Documentação de apoio", during the teaching semester.

This course is divided in a theoretical component and a practical component. 

The theory, including some typical problems, is taught twice a week in 1,5 h lectures. 

The practical classes are divided in exercise and laboratorial classes. In exercise classes, problems from the series are made . In laboratorial classes, experiments are performed to clarify concepts and to develop laboratorial capacities. 

Evaluation method

Article 1 - Theoretical Component - T
1. Active participation in class requires enrollment in the theoretical shift, T.
2. Theoretical classes have a teaching contact period of 3 hours/week, divided into two classes per week.
3. At the beginning of the semester, a provisional schedule of classes and tests is made available in the clip.
4 The assessment of this component is carried out through a knowledge test or exam. Within the scope of continuous assessment, 2 tests will be carried out throughout the semester, whose classification is rounded to the nearest tenth.
5. The T component classification (CT) is the arithmetic mean, rounded to the nearest unit, of the marks obtained in the tests or the final exam classification.
6. The student who obtains a CT classification equal to or greater than 10 values ​​obtain approval in the theoretical component.

Article 2 - Practical Component - P

1. Practical classes are mandatory, with attendance registration, for students who do not attend. These classes are divided into laboratory classes, which take place in Lab 104 Ed. I, and problem classes.
P - Lab
2. The duration of the lab classes is 2 hours and will run every two weeks.
3. In the first lab class, work groups are formed (no more than 2 students per group); a review is carried out on the analysis of results; and lesson planning is presented.
4. The performance of each laboratory work and respective mini-report is classified from 0 to 20 values. Absence from class or non-delivery of report is classified with zero values.
5. The student who obtains an average grade in the mini-reports, MR, rounded to the nearest unit, greater than or equal to ten, is approved in the laboratory component.
6. The student approved in the practical component has access to a practical test, Tp, at the end of the semester, individual and without consultation, which may involve questions from all the works planned for their group and the contents related to the analysis of results.
7. The practical component score, CP, is rounded to the nearest unit, and is 70% of the MR score plus 30% of the score obtained in Tp.
P - Problems
8. Students who have obtained attendance are exempt from this component, but may ask the teacher of the shift to attend the problem classes.
9. The duration of problem classes is 2 hours/week.
10. In problem classes, problems about the subject taught in theoretical classes will be discussed and solved. At the beginning of the semester, a provisional schedule of problem classes is made available.
11. Students must manage the possibility of not being able to attend 1/3 of the classes in order to be able to use these absences for eventual commitments or imponderable situations, including occasional situations of illness.

Article 3 - Attendance
1. The student who participates in at least 2/3 of the TP classes and obtains approval in the P component, obtain frequency in this Curricular Unit (UC).
2. The list of students who attended in previous years will be on CLIP under "Support Documentation > Others, until the end of the first week of classes.

Article 4 - Approval
1. The student with frequency and who obtains a CT grade greater than or equal to ten values, obtain approval in this UC.

Article 5 - Final Classification
1. The final classification (CF) is the result of the following expression approximated to unity: CF = CT×0.7 + CP×0.3
2. If the final classification is higher than 16, the student is admitted to an additional test (eg oral).
3. In the additional test, the student can raise or lower his classification, with a guarantee of a minimum grade of 16 values.
4. The absence of the additional test translates the acceptance by the student of the final grade of 16 values.

Article 6 - Grade Improvement
1. The student who intends to improve his grade must comply, for this purpose, with the legal formalities of registration.
2. The student who obtains a final grade, by improvement, greater than 16 values ​​is subject to the conditions described in points 2, 3 and 4 of Article 5.

Article 7 - Conduct in Class
1. In order for everyone to benefit from the learning experience, every student is required to respect the following in class:
The. Punctuality: Must be present in the classroom at the start of class. The teacher may prevent entry for delays greater than 5 minutes;
B. Class preparation and participation in discussions: Active participation requires each student to prepare the material presented and discussed in class, and to contribute positively to the scientific discussions of the topics.

Article 8 - Tests and Examination
1. Each test will essentially cover all the subjects taught in Theoretical classes until the class before the test.
2. Although the assessment in the tests is not cumulative, and due to the nature of the subjects covered in this UC, it is not excluded that an assessment element relies on knowledge regarding the subject assessed in a previous element(s).
3. The timetable and rooms for the tests and exams will be published in CLIP, on the day of the test.
4. Each student can only have with him/her during the assessment test:
A Pen;
B. Identification document with photograph;
C Scientific calculating machine, non-programmable and non-graphical.
5. During the tests, it is not allowed to consult any personal or other elements, beyond the form distributed with the test.
6. It is not allowed to unstaple the sheets of statements.
7. The race will be canceled if paragraphs 4, 5 or 6 are not satisfied.
8. Fraud situations, at any time of evaluation, will be treated as indicated in the regulation of knowledge evaluation of this Faculty.

Article 9 - Others
1. When contacting any teacher by e-mail, they must indicate in the “Subject” the following information: “Thermodynamics - Name – Student No. – Subject”.
2. Questions whose answers are included in the Assessment Method or on this UC page on CLIP are not answered.

Subject matter

1. Energy
1.1 Energy revisited
1.2 Internal Energy

2. Kinetic Theory of Gases
2.1 Pressure, Temperature
2.2 Equipartition of Energy, Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution
2.3 Mean Free Path, Diffusion, Osmotic Pressure.

3. Thermodynamics Concepts and Wording
3.1 Systems
3.2 Properties
3.3 Processes

4. Pressure and Temperature
4.1 Pressure: barometric, gauge and absolute

4.2 Thermal Equilibrium. Zero Law of Thermodynamics
4.3 Thermometric Properties
4.4 Temperature Scales

5. State Equations
5.1 State Equation and P-V-T surface
5.2 State Equation of an ideal gas
5.3 State Equation of a real gas
5.4 Expansion and Compression

6. The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
6.1 Work
6.2 Heat
6.3 Energy Conservation – The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
6.4 Heat capacity and specific heat

6.4 Enthalpy
6.5 Internal Energy Equations
6.6 Adiabatic Processes 

7. Heat Transfer
7.1 Conduction
7.2 Convection
7.3 Radiation

8. The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
8.1 Second Law – Kelvin and Clausius versions
8.2 Carnot theorem; Thermodynamic Temperature
8.3 Entropy
8.4 Reversible and Irreversible Processes; Clausius Inequality
8.5 Microscopic Vision of Entropy

9. The 1st + 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics
9.1 TdS equations – examples of application
9.2 TS diagrams

10. Phase Transitions
10.1 Different physical states of matter
10.2 PV Diagrams of phase transitions
10.3 TS Diagrams of phase transitions

11. Thermal Engines, Refrigerators and Heat Pumps.
11.1 Energy flux diagram of a thermal engine; Efficiency
11.2 External combustion motors – Stirling e and Steam Machine
11.3 External combustion motors – Otto 
11.4 Energy flux diagram of a refrigerator; Coefficient of performance
11.5 Energy flux diagram of a heat pump; Coefficient of performance

12. The 3rd Law of Thermodynamics and Thermodynamic Potentials
12.1 3rd Law of Thermodynamics
12.2 Consequences of the third law
12.3 Thermodynamic Potentials; System Evolution towards equilibrium

13. Open Systems
13.1 Modification of the Equations
13.2 Chemical Potential
13.3 Phase Transitions. 
13.4 Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
13.5 Thermodynamic vision of diffusion


Programs where the course is taught: