Analog Instrumentation


The following are considered to be the main objectives of this course:

  • Consolidate the knowledge of electronics already acquired in a perspective of design, testing and improvement of electronic instruments in general.
  • Extend knowledge to real applications of electronic equipment and devices.

As a result, not too many theoretical aspects related to circuit analysis and systems theory will be developed, since these topics are considered taught in previous courses. The emphasis will be on practical aspects directly related to the design of electronic equipment.

According to the author of the recommended reference book, ''''Modern electronics is basically a simple art, a combination of some basic laws, semi-empirical rules and a big bag of tricks''''. This kind of knowledge in electronics can only be transmitted to students through continued experimentation, letting them design, build and test electronic circuits.

For this reason, this course will primarily be a hands-on course where students will experience the challenges, frustration and ultimate satisfaction of producing electronic devices that meet the projected objectives!

General characterization





Responsible teacher

Orlando Manuel Neves Duarte Teodoro


Weekly - 5

Total - 70

Teaching language



It is recommended Electromagnetism, Electronics and Circuito Analysis.


The Art of Electronics, 2ª edição, Paul Horowitz e Winfield Hill, Cambridge Press, 1989.

Princípios de Electrónica 1, A.P. Malvino, 6ª edição, McGraw Hill 1999

Princípios de Electrónica 2, A.P. Malvino, 6ª edição, McGraw Hill 2000

Textos dos trabalhos práticos, disponíveis no CLIP

Teaching method

Theoretical classes will be presented using a whiteboard and slides where the theoretical concepts necessary for the work to be carried out will be developed.

Classes will also be presented on the simulation of electronic circuits on a computer.

In laboratory classes, students will use measuring and testing equipment to assemble the proposed circuits.

Evaluation method

The practical component of the course consists of carrying out 2 laboratory assignments in groups of 2 elements and 1 project.

The 2 practical works will be evaluated through the verification of the success in achieving goals t defined in the work protocols. During the execution, students will ask the teacher to check that each goal was achieved and the teacher will classify the execution according to the following criteria:

0 Missed

1 Incorrect

2 Incomplete

3 With difficulty

4 Correctly but more slowly or in need of support

5 Correctly in less than average time and autonomously

This scale is continuous.

These criteria are intended to promote correctness, autonomy and speed in the execution of practical laboratory work.

The teacher may assign different classifications to members of the same group.

The final project will also be carried out in groups of 2 and its evaluation will be done by a written report and by and oral exam.

There will be two theory tests at the end of each practical assignment.

The tests do not have a minimum grade but all assessment components must be greater than 9.5. If the student justifiably misses a mini-test (for example due to illness) he can take the exam only for the corresponding part.


20%— evaluation of practical work during its execution.

40%— evaluation of the final project. The evaluation rules for this work are published in a separate document.

40%— tests. If the student takes the exam ''''de recurso'''', the grade obtained in that exam will have this weighting.

The "frequency" grade is calculated based on the evaluation of the practical work and, if it is ≥9.5, it will allow access to the final exam and will validate the result of the tests.

The attendance grade (if greater than or equal to 10) can be used by the students in the following years.

Subject matter

The program will be developed around selected and representative practical works in analog electronics and a final project.

The works will be exposed in the classroom in advance, recapitulating the due theoretical framework as well as practical aspects of dimensioning.

In the laboratory, students will carry out the sizing, simulation and breadboard testing.

Some typical work will be around the following topics:

1. Visualization and generation of signals, oscillators, differentiating and integrator circuits and modulation.

(3 classes)

2. Instrumentation amplifiers; the Lock-in.

(4 classes)

The project will be chosen by the students among the following themes

1- Acquisition of cardiac signals

2- Magnetic suspension

More details about the projects will be provided during the semester.


Programs where the course is taught: