Chemistry of the Elements


This subject has the objective of rationalizing the diversity of inorganic compounds exhibited by the Main Group elements of the Periodic Table.

General characterization





Responsible teacher

António Jorge Dias Parola, Carlos Lodeiro Espino


Weekly - 4

Total - 57

Teaching language





1 - W. Henderson, Main Group Chemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2000.

2 - F. A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, P. L. Gaus, Basic Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., Wiley, 1995.

3 - P. Atkins, T. Overton, J. Rourke, M. Weller, F. Armstrong, Srhriver & Atkins’ Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, 2010.

4 - C. E. Housecroft, A. G. Sharpe, Inorganic Chemistry, 4th Ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, 2012.

5 – R. Chang, Química, 11th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2013.

Teaching method


Learning is done with help of power point presentations, made on the TP classes, which contain figures, tables and graphics and allows a systematic study of the elements and their compounds, it is intended to put the student in contact with a recent bibliography in the area. Solve problems related to the theoretical and practical classes and achieving the practical work that will allow them to experience and corroborate the theory learned and to develop in the student the ability to comment and criticize. At the end of the practical work is handed a questionnaire with questions relating to the work performed. The assessment is made as a weighted average of the theoretical and practical note.

Evaluation method

This curricular unit (CU) has attendance (“frequência”). To comply with this, it is necessary to perform all the laboratory classes, submit the respective questionnaires, and have a laboratory mark ≥ 9.5. Students who have attendance from previous years do not need to take practical classes; the mark previously obtained will be used in the calculation of the final grade.

The final mark of this CU has a contribution of 80% of the theoretical grade and 20% of the practical grade.

The evaluation of the theoretical component is based on the completion of two tests or an exam. Completing the CU by tests means taking the two tests and having an average mark ≥ 9.5 values. This mark, or the exam mark, has a weight of 80% in the final grade.


In carrying out any evaluation procedure, it must be taken into consideration the provisions of Article 10 of the FCT NOVA Evaluation Regulation, “When the existence of fraud or plagiarism is verified, in any of the two evaluation elements of a CU, the students directly involved are preliminarily disqualified from UC (…).”

Subject matter

1. Theoretical lessons

1.1. Introduction. Review of atomic structure: quantum numbers, orbitals, electronic configuration. Effective nuclear charge. Periodic table trends.

1.2. Main group chemistry.

1.2.1. Group 1: hydrogen and alcaline metals. Solubility of salts in water: lattice energy, hydration enthalpy, solution enthalpy.

1.2.2. Group 2: alkaline earth metals.

1.2.3. Group 13.

1.2.4. Group 14.

1.2.5. Group 15. Redox representations: Latimer, Frost and Pourbaix diagrams.

1.2.6. Group 16.

1.2.7. Groups 17 and 18: halogens and noble gases.

1.3. REDOX reactions and their representation.

1.3.1. Basic concepts in REDOX chemistry.

1.3.2. Diagrammatic presentation of potential data: Latimer, Frost and Pourbaix diagrams.


Programs where the course is taught: