Biological Effects of Radiation
This curricular unit aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation in biological systems. Mainly, it seeks to provide understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter on the molecular level and how molecular-level effects lead to damage at the cell and tissue levels.
At the end of this curricular unit, students should be able to:
- Understand the effect of radiation on atoms and molecules;
- Distinguish between different mechanisms of damage at the molecular level;
- Understand the systems of defense, and repair, against radiation damage;
- Use of radiation in the characterization of biomolecules
Critically review the scientific literature pertinent in this field.
Pedro António de Brito Tavares
Weekly - 2
Total - 30
Optional. No mandatory requirements.
- “Radiation Biology: A Handbook for Teachers and Students”, training course series no. 42, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 2010.
- “Essentials of Radiation, Biology and Protection”, Steve Forshire, Delmar Cengage Learning; 2 edition, 2008.
- A. S. Pereira, P. Tavares, P. Limão-Vieira, Eds. , Radiation in Bioanalysis: Spectroscopic Techniques and Theoretical Methods, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2019
- Vários artigos publicados em revistas científicas internacionais.
The contents of the curricular unit will be presented in two classes: i) theoretical classes, illustrated whenever possible with practical cases; and ii) seminar classes, that will include presentation and group discussion of an article published in an international journal. It will also be asked that students prepare an individual essay in specific chosen themes. Evaluation will take into account the presentation (40%) and the essay (60%).
The final grade will be calculated by the following formula:
CF = 0.55 x AR + 0.40 x AO + 0.05 x D
- CF = final classification, rounded to units;
- AR = Writing of a review article on the presented theme, in English,
- AO = Oral presentation and discussion of the chosen topic
- D = Contribution to the debate
In order to obtain frequency, attendance at 70 % of classes is required.
1. Introduction and Historical Perspective
2. Sources and types of Ionizing Radiation
- Particulate vs. Electromagnetic
- Atomic structure, origin and nature of ionizing radiation
- Radiation dose and units
- Principles of radiation dosimetry
- Interaction of radiation with matter
3. Introduction to Radiation Chemistry
- Water radiolysis
- Free radical formation
- Direct vs indirect effects
4. Radiation-induced cell death
- Survival curves in vivo and in vitro
- Damage repair at the cellular level
- Dose rate effects
5. Radiation effects on cell cycle
7. Radiation Effects on DNA
- Type of damage caused by ionizing radiation
- Radiation induced mutations
- Chromosome and chromatid aberrations
- DNA repair mechanisms
8. Radiation effects on proteins and lipids
9. Use of radiation in the characterization of biomolecules