Law & Technology


The objective of this introductory course is to provide students with multidisciplinary knowledge and understanding about the most relevant legal challenges of emerging technologies and digital economy at European level. 

General characterization





Responsible teacher

VERA LÚCIA RAPOSO, Iakovina Kindylidi


Weekly - 1.5

Total - 18

Teaching language



Available soon



Chesterman, Simon (2020). Artificial Intelligence And The Limits Of Legal Personality- International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 69(4), 819-844. doi:10.1017/S0020589320000366


EPRS | European Parliamentary Research Service,2020, European framework on ethical aspects of artificial intelligence, robotics and related technologies


Ronald Leenes, Erica Palmerini, Bert-Jaap Koops, Andrea Bertolini, Pericle Salvini, Federica Lucivero, 2017, Regulatory Challenges of Robotics: Some Guidelines for Addressing Legal and Ethical Issues.


European Blockchain Observatory and Forum, 2019, Legal and regulatory framework of blockchains and smart contracts


European Blockchain Observatory and Forum, 2020, Governance of and with Blockchains


Flyverbom M, Deibert R, Matten D. (2019). The Governance of Digital Technology, Big Data, and the Internet: New Roles and Responsibilities for Business. Business & Society. 58(1):3-19. doi:10.1177/0007650317727540


Raposo, Vera Lúcia. (2022). Ex machina: preliminary critical assessment of the European Draft Act on artificial intelligence, International Journal of Law and Information Technology, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 88-109,


Raposo, Vera Lúcia. (2022). I´m Right Behind You: Digital Contact Tracing Under European Law, Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law. Doi:10.1177/1023263X221116227


Raposo, Vera Lúcia (2022). The Use of Facial Recognition Technology by Law Enforcement in Europe: a Non-Orwellian Draft Proposal. Eur J Crim Pol Res. 1:1-19. Doi: 10.1007/s10610-022-09512-y

Teaching method


Evaluation method

Final exam.

Subject matter


1.            The digital society: Introductory class; Overview of the topics to be analysed during the semester; Understanding of the basic concepts to be used in the semester (digital society, digital economy, emerging technologies etc.);

2.            Digital governance: Overview of main regulatory challenges, including GDPR and Proposal of AI Artificial Intelligence Regulation

3.            Artificial intelligence: Understanding the concepts of AI and Robotics and main legal challenges; Overview of the Proposal of AI Artificial Intelligence Regulation

4.            Digital tools and health (AI in health care delivery, medical devices and the internet of things): Analysis of some uses of new technologies in the provision of individual health care (AI in the provision of medical care) and in the field of public health (digital contact tracing).

5.            Digital tools and contract law (smart contracts, blockchain): Understanding of the main concepts; Overview of legal and regulatory challenges on blockchain, smart contracts and NFTs

6.            Digital tools and law enforcement (facial recognition): exploring the use of technology for the purpose of preventing and fighting crime through facial recognition technology.


Programs where the course is taught: