# Biostatistics

## Objectives

1. To understand the importance of the use of statistics in designing research projects.
2. To distinguish the various types of variables and measurement scales.
3. To use appropriately Exploratory Analysis and Descriptive Statistics concepts.
4. To apply the concepts of point and interval estimation.
5. To know how to decide between parametric and nonparametric tests in international health applications.
6. To distinguish the concepts of correlation and association and how to apply them in real life cases.
7. To use and to analyze the outputs from SPSS or other statistical software.
8. To Use in a responsible way SPSS or other complementary programs.

## General characterization

5573036

4

##### Responsible teacher

Maria do Rosário O. Martins

Weekly - 6

Total - 46

Portuguese

Not applicable

### Bibliography

• Armitage P., Berry G. Statistical Methods for Medical Research, 4rd Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd. 2005.
• Bland, M., An Introduction to Medical Statistics, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press.
• Douglas G. Altman. Practical Statistics for Medical Research, Chapman and Hall/CRC Texts in Statistical Science.
• G. Cunha, M. Rosário Martins, R. Sousa, F. Ferraz Oliveira. Estatística Aplicada às Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde, Editora LIDEL.
• J Martin Bland, Douglas G. Altman, Statistical Notes, BMJ.

### Teaching method

Lectures and tutorials. The classroom sessions will be theoretical and practical, involving the analysis of on-the databases through the use of statistical programs such as SPSS.

### Evaluation method

Assessment: exam (50%); individual work (50%).

## Subject matter

I. Introduction: What it is the statistics and its importance in International Health Research; Classification of Variables and Measurement Scales; Stages of Statistical Analysis Process; Organization and presentation of data.
II. Descriptive Statistics: Location Measures (Mean, Mode, Median); Dispersion measures (variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation).
III. Main Distributions: Normal t Student distribution and Chi-Square.
IV. Introduction to Inferential Statistics: Confidence Intervals for the mean and proportion; Main stages underlying the construction of a Hypothesis Test; Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test.
V. Testes paramétricos e não paramétricos; Testes paramétricos: teste de igualdade de média entre dois grupos; Amostras emparelhadas e amostras independentes; Testes não paramétricos: teste de igualdade de medianas para dois ou mais grupos.
VI. Correlação e Associação: Associação e teste do Qui-quadrado; Correlação Linear de Pearson e Correlação de Spearman.

## Programs

Programs where the course is taught: